The Fourth Sunday in Lent is known as Laetare Sunday after the opening words of the Introit at its Mass Laetare, Jerusalem - Rejoice Jerusalem - and is also known as 'mid-Lent' Sunday and is also 'Mothering Sunday' in many countries including the United Kingdom. It is a semi-double Sunday of the first class. The distinguishing feature of this Sunday, in relatively modern times, is the permitted, though not obligatory, use of rose-coloured vestments. Rose is perceived as a lighter shade of violet and the use of rose vestments developed from the older praxis of a golden rose being given to female monarchs by the pope on this day. Cardinals of the Court of Rome wore rose watered-silk choir dress too on this Sunday along with the corresponding Gaudete Sunday in Advent. For the rest of Lent Cardinals wore their 'winter violet' merino cassock, mantelletum and mozzeta (not the violet watered silk of their 'summer' violet). This practice disappeared during the 1920s.
At Vespers yesterday morning the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The chapter was proper to the Sunday and the Office hymn was Audi benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations were sung of the preceding feast of St. Frances of Rome and of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste. The Suffrage of the Saints was omitted due to the concurring double feast as were the Dominical preces at Compline.
At Mattins the invitatory is, as on the previous Sundays of Lent, Non sit vobis and the hymn Ex more. The antiphons given in the Psalter for Sundays are used. In the first nocturn the lessons are from Exodus and the story of Moses and the Burning Bush. In the second nocturn the lessons are from the writings of St. Basil the Great on fasting and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Augustine on St. John's Gospel. At Lauds the antiphons, Tunc acceptabis etc., are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, the canticle Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration is sung of the Forty Martyrs followed by the Suffrage of the Saints.
At Prime and the Hours the antiphons, Accepit ergo etc., are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two stanzas of 118. The Dominical preces are sung and the short lesson is Quaerite Dominum.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is not sung. The second collect is of the Forty Martyrs, the third collect is A cunctis. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Credo is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the celebrant and altar. As folded chasubles are not worn the organ may be played. Violet vestments may be used in the absence of rose, or in preference to it, in which case the deacon and subdeacon wear the dalmatic and tunicle not folded chasubles.
Vespers are of the Sunday, sung in the afternoon, with Pss. 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113. The Office hymn is Audi benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration is sung of the Forty Martyrs followed by the Suffrage of the Saints. At Compline the Dominical preces are sung.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Vespers yesterday were sung at the same time as outside of Lent, without any commemorations. Mattins is cut down to three lessons. At Lauds there is no commemoration and no Suffrage. At Prime the psalms are 53 and the first two divisi of Ps. 118. At Mass there is only a single collect. The dismissal is Ite, missa est. Vespers are without any commemoration or Suffrage. At Compline there are no Dominical preces.
Art: Jerome Nadal