Saturday, 2 February 2013

Candlemass - Purification of the BVM

The Feast of the Purification of the BVM is a Double of the Second Class. The feast is generally known in English-speaking countries as Candlemass as before Mass candles for use throughout the year ahead are solemnly blessed. (When the feast falls on Septuagesima or one of other 'Gesima' Sundays the blessing of candles takes place on the Sunday but the feast is transferred to the following Monday.) The liturgical colour of the day is white but violet is used for the blessing of candles and procession.

In the Byzantine East the feast is known as the Hypapante, the Meeting of the Lord, and was often so name in early Western liturgical books (e.g. several examples can be found in the comparison of Calendars given in 'Saints in English Calendars before 1100', Henry Bradshaw Society, Vol.CXVII). In the diverse Medieval uses an even more elaborate blessing than the form found in the Roman Missal outlined below can be seen with a preface of blessing, e.g. Sarum, which compares with the blessing of Palms and the Waters at Epiphany.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons used on the feast of the Circumcision were heard again, O admirabile commercium etc with the psalms of feasts for the Blessed Virgin (Pss. 109, 112, 121, 126 & 147). The chapter was proper to the feast and the Office hymn Ave, maris stella. The antiphon on the Magnificat was proper to the feast Senex Puerum portabat etc. After the collect of the feast a commemoration of the preceding feast of St. Ignatius of Antioch was sung. At Compline the tone of Te lucis was that for feast of the Virgin with the Doxology in honour of the Incarnation Jesu, tibi sit gloria etc.

At Mattins the invitatory is proper, Ecce venit as templum sanctum suum Dominator Dominus: Gaude et laetare, Sion occurrens Deo tuo and the Office hymn is Quem terra. The antiphons and psalms for each nocturn come from the Common of the Blessed Virgin as does the Office hymn Quem terra, pontus, sidera. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the Book of Exodus and from Leviticus. The responsories are proper to feast and particularly beautiful. In the second nocturn the lessons come from a sermon of St. Augustine and in the third nocturn the homily if from St. Ambrose. The Te Deum is sung. At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the feast, Simeon justus etc., and are sung with the Dominical psalms. The antiphon on the Benedictus is again proper to the feast, Cum inducerent etc.

At the Hours the hymns have the melody of the BVM and the Doxology Jesu tibi sit gloria etc. The antiphons from Lauds, Simeon justus etc., are sung with the festal psalms. At Prime the psalms are Pss. 53, 118i & 118ii, in the short responsory the versicle Qui natus es de Virgine is sung and the lectio brevis is proper to the feast, Et placebit.

After Terce the blessing of candles takes place. The celebrant vests in a violet cope and the ministers in violet folded chausubles. The altar is vested in white but a violet antependium placed over the festal one etc. The organ is silent (as is always the case when folded chausubles are used).

At the Epistle corner the celebrant sings five prayers of blessing in the ferial tone. Incense is then blessed, lustral water sprinkled over the candles whilst the celebrant says Asperges me and then the candles are then incensed. At the centre of the altar the celebrant receives a candle from the senior canon present, kissing the candle before taking it. In no canon or senior cleric is present the celebrant kneels before the altar and takes his own candle. Candles are then distributed while the antiphon Lumen ad revelationem is sung interpolated into the canticle Nunc dimittis. Those receiving the candles kiss them, first, then the celebrant's hand. At the conclusion of the distribution the antiphon Exsurge, Domine is sung with a Doxology and the candles lighted. After the distribution the celebrant returns with the ministers to the Epistle corner and chants Oremus. As the feast falls after Septuagesima the deacon sings Flectamus genua and all kneel. The the sub-deacon chants Levate. The celebrant then sings the collect Exaudi. The procession then takes place. The subdeacon of the Mass takes the processional cross. The procession goes around the church with lighted candles during the singing of three antiphons Adorna thalamum, Responsum accepit Simeon and Obtulerunt. These text are clearly ancient and found, almost verbatim, in the Menaion of the Byzantine rite.

After the Procession the ministers change from violet vestments to white and Mass is celebrated. The Gloria is sung. The Gradual Suscepimus and the tract, Nunc dimittis etc, replaces the Alleluia being in Septuagesima. The Creed is sung and the preface is that of the Nativity, the feast being a 'satellite' of Christmas. Lighted candles are held by all during the chanting of the Gospel, including the celebrant, and from the beginning of the Canon until after the distribution of Communion.

At second Vespers the antiphons Simeon justus etc and chapter from Lauds are used again with the psalms of the Blessed Virgin, the antiphon on the Magnificat is proper. After the collect of the feast a commemoration is sung of Sexagesima Sunday. From Compline the Marian antiphon changes from Alma, Redemptoris to Ave, Regina caelorum etc.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the feast loses first Vespers (unless it falls on a Sunday or is celebrated as a I class local feast). Yesterday Vespers were of St. Ignatius without any commemoration of the Purification. Mattins and Lauds are the same as the Old Rite. At the Little Hours the ferial antiphons and psalter are used although the versicle Qui natus is sung in the short responsory at Prime. The lectio brevis is of the season, not of the feast. The Doxology in honour of the BVM is omitted at all the hymns of the Little Hours which are sung to a different tone. At Vespers there is no commemoration of the Sunday.

At the blessing of candles white vestments are used rather than violet. The five collects of blessing have the usual 'long conclusion' omitted and in its place the 'short conclusion' - e.g. Per eundem Dominum nostrum. Amen. The verse Exsurge, Domine is omitted, the command of Flectamus genua is always omitted even in Septuagesima and at Mass Judica me Deus etc is excised as on several other days in the 1962 missal.

Icon of the Hypapante from St. John's Parish of the Melkite Eparchy in Australia.


John Meyers said...

I think the details from the Mass and Vespers are from a previous year: we are in Septuagesima so it should be the tract and I think that Vespers should be of Sexagesima with a commemoration of Candlemas (again, I think, I could be wrong on that).

Rubricarius said...

Thank you John. Mea culpa, sorted now. However, Vespers were II Vespers of the Purification with a commemoration of Sexagesima.

John Meyers said...

I had suspected that I was wrong about Vespers yesterday. I still don't quite the details of how the typical "day", Sunday or not, privileged or not, work when compared to feasts. I have a similar problem when the second Vespers of a feast gets "bumped" and while commemorated, it gets moved to the end. I'll eventually get it.
And thanks again for all the work you do on these blogs.