Wednesday, 31 March 2010
The photograph (of a photograph) above was taken on Spy Wednesday evening 1995 just before the singing of Tenebrae in the Union Debating Chamber of the University of Durham. It part of a series of photographs of the Triduum celebrated by the Rev. Dr. T.C.G. Glover, JCD, a good friend of this blogger. Dr. Glover was unique, at the time, in celebrating the full Office of the Triduum including all the Horae Minorae from the mid-1980s until his retirement in 1995. More photographs of the series will be posted during the Triduum.
During the late afternoon of Spy Wednesday (following the practice in Rome), or in the early evening, the service of Tenebrae is sung. Tenebrae is Mattins and Lauds, as usual anticipated, of the following liturgical day but the Office of the Triduum shows signs of antiquity and has developed a ceremonial extinguishing of candles that mimetically represent the desertion of the LORD by his disciples and the days of darkness - hence the name. The wreckovators of the 1950s completely got this wrong and, following the rationalist ideas expressed by people such as the Jesuit Herbert Thurston in the early years of the twentieth century, decided the candle were merely extiguished as dawn was approaching. So there is now the spectacle in the new rite service of extinguishing candles at a service often starting at 10:00am...
The altar is vested in violet antependia and the Blessed Sacrament removed if It is present on the choir altar. The altar cross is veiled in violet and the candlesticks, the plainest set used on Good Friday, bearing six lighted candles of unbleached wax.
In Rome Tenebrae in the Papal Chapel was celebrated very early so the rays of the setting sun would pass through a window of the Sistine Chapel. The Caeremoniale Episcoporum mentions Tenebrae starting progressively later each day of the Triduum. In practice the service 'works best' if it at least ends in near darkness.
In the sanctuary in about the place where the Epistle is sung is placed the Tenebrae hearse. The hearse, for the Roman rite, bears fifteen lighted candles of unbleached wax. The choir enters, seniores ante inferiores, take their places and kneels to say Aperi, Domine. When the choir rises the sign of the Cross is made as the cantors intone the first antiphon of Mattins, Zelus domus tuae. This is sung in full and then the first psalm Salvum me fac, Deus intoned. At the end of the psalm (there is no Gloria Patri during the Triduum) the lowest candle on the Gospel side of the hearse is extinguished. Before the 1911-13 reform the chant books had a special cadence at the end of each psalm, a drop of a fourth, which presumably was an audible indication for the acolyte to extinguish a candle. Then the next antiphon is sung with its psalm etc. After the first three psalms there is a versicle and response and then all stand for a silent Pater noster. During the Triduum there are no absolutions and blessings at Mattins. The psalms of Mattins for Tenebrae on Mandy Thursday are really the first nine of the twelve ferial psalms from the pre-Pius X Breviary for Mattins. In the reformed Breviary they appear 'proper' but are in fact the ancient practice. They are: I nocturn, 68, 69, 70; II nocturn, 71, 72, 73; III nocturn, 74, 75, 76.
The follows the Lamentations of Jeremy the Prophet as first nocturn lessons. These are from the OT book and have verses based on a Hebrew acrostic. The first verse thus begins with 'Aleph'. The verses have several special tones in plainsong and have been set to polyphony by various composers. The lessons are sung from a lectern medio chori. A responsory follows the first lessons as usual at Mattins. After the third responsory the second nocturn begins and has lessons from St. Augustine on the psalms. The third nocturn has lessons from St. Paul to the Corinthians on the foundation of the Holy Eucharist. At Tenebrae the Hebodomadarius does not chant the ninth lesson. At the end of Mattins the Tenebrae Hearse has five candles exstinguished on the Gospel side and four on the Epistle side with six remaining lit candles.
Lauds follow immediately. The psalms sung at Lauds are Pss. 50, 89, 35, Cantemus Domino, 146. After each psalm of Lauds a further candle is extinguished so that after the last psalm only the candle on the summit of the hearse is still alight. After the last antiphon is repeated a versicle and response follow. Then the antiphon on the Benedictus is intoned, for Maundy Thursday this is Traditor autem dedit eis signum, dicens: Quem osculatus fuero, ispe est, tenete eum. The concept of the betrayal of Judas is key to the day. The plainsong for the Benedictus is the haunting tone 1g. During the last six verses each of the altar candles is exstinguished beginning with the outside candle on the Gospel side. All other lamps in the church are now also extinguished. During the repetition of the antiphon the MC takes the candle from the hearse and places it on the mensa at the Epistle corner of the altar. All kneel and the choir now sings Christus factus est pro nobis obediens usque ad mortem. During this antiphon the MC hides the lit candle behind the altar. A Pater noster is now said in a low voice by all and then psalm 50, the Miserere is chanted in a subdued voice. This has been adapted by many composers into polyphonic masterpieces, perhaps the most famous being by Allegri. The Miserere was part of the ferial preces of Vespers until 1911-13. After the Miserere the collect Respice is chanted by the Hebdomadarius, still kneeling. Then a strepitus or noise is made traditionally by banging books against the stalls.
Practical Tip: DO NOT bang decent books against the stalls, they are rare enough already - bash the Hell out of a '62 book instead!
After the strepitus the MC brings forth the candle and returns this symbol of the light of Christ to the top of the hearse. It either remains there or is taken by the MC ahead the procession as the choir processes out of the sanctuary.
In the 'restored' rite found in the 'liturgical books of 1962' the symbolism of the service is shattered at it takes place in broad daylight tomorrow morning, except in Cathedral churches where the Chrism Mass is celebrated tomorrow morning. In that single case Mattins, only, is sung on Wednesday evening - quite what one does with the remaining lit candles on the hearse and altar..... A.J. MacGregor's 'Fire and Light in the Western Triduum' , Alcuin Club 71, conclusively demonstrates that Tenebrae never took place in broad daylight. The Miserere is omitted from all the Offices, the ceremony with the candle and the strepitus are gone, although often added in defiance of the rubrics these people ostensibly support.
Hopefully, scheduled posts will appear for each day. Any comments will be posted on the evening of Dominica Resurrectionis.
May all readers and friends, always valued, and foe alike have a very blessed Triduum and Holy Pascha.
Tuesday, 30 March 2010
From Australia a series of photographs of a celebration of the Extraordinary Form of the New rite can be seen here (large files).
In contrast, from London, photographs of the Traditional Rite of Palm Sunday may be seen here. Stunningly superb and so infinitely superior to the new rite in either of its forms.
Monday, 29 March 2010
On Monday Mattins has one nocturn. The lessons are taken from a homily of St. Augustine on St. John's Gospel account of the raising of Lazarus, the responsories are proper. At the second scheme of Lauds the antiphons are proper, Faciem meam etc, the ferial preces are sung, the choir kneeling. These antiphons are sung at the Hours. At Prime the chapter is the ferial Pacem. The ferial preces are also sung at the Hours, again the choir kneeling. At Mass, sung after None, the deacon and subdeacon wear folded chasubles, the second collect is Ecclesiae, for the Church, the preface is of the Cross, there is an Oratio super populum and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino. Vespers are ferial with preces feriales sung kneeling and at Compline, at the usual time, the preces are also sung kneeling.
Tuesday follows a similar pattern. At the nocturn the lessons are taken from Jeremiah the Prophet, the responsories are proper. At the second scheme of Lauds the antiphons are proper, Vidi, Domine etc, the ferial preces are sung, the choir kneeling. These antiphons are sung at the Hours. At Prime the chapter is the ferial Pacem. The ferial preces are also sung at the Hours, again the choir kneeling.
At Mass, sung after None, the deacon and subdeacon wear folded chasubles, the second collect is Ecclesiae, for the Church. Today the Passion according to St. Mark is sung, following the same rules as on Palm Sunday. The Passion consists of Mark 14: 1-72; 15: 1-46. The deacon of the Mass sings the last part of the Passion, Et cum jam sero...ad ostium monumenti, with the usual ceremonies for the Gospel at Mass. Thee preface is of the Cross, there is an Oratio super populum and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino. Vespers are ferial with preces feriales sung kneeling and at Compline, at the usual time, the preces are also sung kneeling.
On Wednesday again a similar pattern is followed. At Mattins in the nocturn the lessons are again taken from the Prophet Jeremiah, the responsories are proper. At the second scheme of Lauds the antiphons are proper, Libera me etc, the ferial precesare sung with the choir kneeling. These antiphons are sung at the Hours. The ferial preces are sung, kneeling, at the Hours. At Prime the chapter is the ferial Pacem and in the Martyrology the first announcement is that of Maundy Thursday. After today the Martyrology is not read until Holy Pascha.
At Mass, sung after None, the deacon and subdeacon wear folded chasubles. After the Kyrie the celebrant chants Oremus, the deacon Flectamus genua and then the subdeacon Levate. The celebrant then chants the collect Praesta, quaesumus etc. There follows an OT pericope from Isaiah. A Gradual is then sung. Then Dominus vobiscum etcis sung, without Flectamus genua and the collect of the Mass follows. The second collect Ecclesiae is added here. Then a second lesson from Isaiah follows and then the tract. On Wednesday in Holy Week the Passion according to St. Luke is sung at Mass. The text of the Passion is Luke 22: 1-71; 23: 1-53. The last part of the Passion, Videns autem centurio...haec videntes is sung by the deacon of the Mass with the usual ceremonies of the Gospel at Mass. The preface if of the Cross, there is an Oratio super populum and the dismissal is Bendicamus Domino.
On the evening of Spy Wednesday, Wednesday in Holy Week, Mattins and Lauds is sung in a special form known as Tenebrae.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' following the 'Restored' order of Holy Week dalmatic and tunicle are worn by the deacon and subdeacon rather than folded chasubles. No commemorations are allowed and there is no second collect in the Masses. Any text read by a lector, subdeacon or deacon is not read by the celebrant (extended throughout the year in the 1962 books). OHSI of 1955 orders the Orate fratres to be said in an audible voice and all present to respond. Ferial preces are sung only on Wednesdays at Lauds and Vespers only. The Passion according to St. Mark on Tuesday is shortened: Mark 14: 32-72; 15: 1-46 as is the Passion according to St. Luke on Wednesday: Luke 22: 39-71; 23: 1-53.
Sunday, 28 March 2010
(A 15th century Russian Icon of the Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem from Wikipedia)
The Office began, as usual in Lent, with Vespers yesterday morning. Vespers were sung with the antiphons and psalms of Saturday. The chapter, from Philippians, Fratres: Hoc enim senite, was proper to the Sunday. The Office hymm Vexilla regis was sung. Commemorations were sung of the preceding Office of St. John of Damascus and the occurring Office of St. John Capistran. At Compline, sung at the usual time, the Dominical preces were omitted because of the ocurring double feasts at Vespers.
At Mattins there are three nocturns. In the first nocturn the book of Jeremiah the Prophet is read. In the second nocturn the lessons are a sermon of St. Leo the Great and in the third a homily of St. Ambrose. There is no Te Deum but a ninth responsory in its place. At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms is sung (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is Lustra sex. A commemoration of St. John Capistran is sung.
The photograph below is from a celebration of Palm Sunday Mattins and Lauds, on the Saturday evening, at a private chapel in Central London from 1997. The large 'Rood Cross' should, of course, have been veiled but unfortunately this was not practically possible.
At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the antiphon is Pueri Hebraeorum (that will be heard later at the distribution of Palms) and psalms 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two stanzas of 118 are sung. The Dominical preces are not sung due to the occuring double feast and the short lesson is Faciem meam. At Terce the antiphon is Pueri Hebraeorum vestimenta which again will be heard shortly afterwards at the distribution of Palms.
After Terce, as usual the Asperges ceremony takes place before Mass. The deacon and subdeacon wear violet folded chasubles. Being in Passiontide the Lesser Doxology is omitted after the verse of the Miserere. After the Asperges the celebrant and ministers proceed to the Epistle corner and begin the elaborate blessing of Palms. The rubrics give a direction that the Palms to be blessed are either to the Epistle side or be placed in the centre. The blessing starts with the celebrant reading an 'introit' Hosanna Filio David followed by a collect Deus, quim diligere. The normal ceremonies of High Mass are followed. The subdeacon removes his folded chasuble to sing the Epistle and the deacon removes his for the Gospel that follows the 'gradual'. After singing their pericopes the ministers again wear their folded chasubles.
The two photographs above and the others below are taken from the excellent series by Mark Coleman from St. Clement's Church in Philadelphia, USA. Note the folded chasubles and the deacon's broad stole when he is proclaiming the Gospel of the blessing of Palms.
Following the Gospel a further collect Auge fidem followed by a preface, Sanctus and four further collects Deus, qui dispersa, Deus, qui miro, Deus, qui per olivae and Benedic quaesumus. The celebrant then puts on incense and blesses it. The Palms are then aspersed with lustral water, the celebrant saying in a low voice Asperges me etc, and then censed. Another collect, Deus, qui Filium is then sung. The celebrant then receives his Palm from the senior canon present. If no other priest is present the celebrant kneels and takes the Palm from the of the altar, kisses it then passes it to the subdeacon who places it again on the mensa. The celebrant then gives Palms to the deacon and subdeacon and other ministers and then the people. The Palm is kissed first and then the celebrant's hand. During the distribution the antiphons Pueri Hebraeorum and Pueri Hebraeorum vestimenta are sung. After the distribution the celebrant and ministers go back to the altar, bow to the Cross and then go to the Epistle corner where the celebrant's hands are washed. Then, at the missal, he sings the collect Omnipotens sempiterne.
Whilst the celebrant's hands are washed the Processional Cross is decorated with the blessed Palms A Procession is then formed, led by the thurifer, followed by the subdeacon bearing the Processional Cross. The deacon sings Procedamus in pace and the following antiphons are sung during the Procession Cum appropinquaret, Cum audisset, Ante sex dies, Occurrunt turbae, Cum angelis et pueris and Turba multa.
Ideally the Procession goes outside and around the church. Often circumstances dictate the Procession must simply go around the aisles of the church. Towards he end of the Procession some cantors re-enter the church and close the door. The beautiful hymn of Theodolph Gloria, laus, et honor is then sung in alternation between the cantors inside the church and everyone else outside. At the end of the hymn the subdeacon strikes the church door three times with the foot of the Processional Cross and the party enters to the singing of Ingrediente Domino.
The photograph above is taken from 'Cardinal Bourne - A Life in Pictures', a memorial tribute to Cardinal Bourne, Archbishop of Westminster, and is from Palm Sunday 1919. Note the elaborate Palm the Cardinal is holding and the folded chasubles worn by the Canon Assistant Deacons (who are also wearing rochets). The photograph is at the stage when Gloria laus is being sung before the re-entry into the Cathedral.
Mass then follows the usual manner. The celebrant removes the cope and dons his chasuble. The preparatory prayers are said but with the psalm Judica me omitted. The introit is Domine, ne longe etc. There is no Gloria. No commemoration is made of an occuring Office on Palm Sunday so there is only one collect. Psalm 21 is sung in its entirety as a Tract. The major difference from any other Sunday is singing of the Passion according to St. Matthew by three additional deacons of the Passion. The text of the Passion is Matthew 26: 1-75; 27: 1-66. After the singing of the Passion the last part, Altera autem die...lapidem cum custodibus, is sung with the ceremonies of a Gospel by the deacon of the Mass (having removed his folded chasuble etc) to a most haunting tone. The people hold their Palms during the singing of the Passion. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Cross and the dismissal Benedicamus Domino.
Sext and None again have proper antiphons. At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday are sung. The chapter and hymn are as at Vespers yesterday. A commemoration is sung of St. John Capistran.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' rape might not be too emotive a word to describe what has happened to Palm Sunday. The official name of the day becomes the 'Second Sunday of the Passion or Palm Sunday'. Mattins has its usual truncation to three lessons. No commemoration is made of St John Capistran. Prime has psalms 53 and the first two stanzas of psalm 118. However, it is the blessing of Palms and Mass that have been mutilated.
The Asperges is suppressed. Why one might ask? The ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, along with the celebrant's chasuble of red colour for the blessing, what remains of it, and procession. (It would be too distracting to argue the point but when red was worn in Passiontide in Medieval times the colour was a distinctly different shade from the red of martyrs and a dull 'ox blood' red.)
The blessing of Palms takes place at a table facing the people in the sanctuary or may take place at another place, facing the people. The people may hold, unblessed, palms from the beginning.
The above is from J.B.O'Connell's 'The Ceremonies of Holy Week', Burns Oates, 1960. O'Connell mentions that the table may be placed on the footpace of the altar to facilitate the people's view. In that case he says, the celebrant kisses the table, ft.nt. 5, p.20 - kitchen tables in the sanctuary here we go!
In practice this parody of the former rite looks like the photographs below from the FSSP.
The collect Deus, quem diligere is suppressed, the Epistle Venerunt filii Israel in Elim is supressed, the 'gradual' Collegerunt is suppressed, the 'gradual' In monte Oliveti is suppressed, the collect Auge fidem is suppressed, the preface of blessing is suppressed, the Sanctus is suppressed, the collect Petimus, Domine is suppressed, the collect Deus, qui dispersa is suppressed, the collect Deus, qui miro is suppressed, the collect Deus, qui, per olivae is suppressed. The collect Benedic, quaesumus survives! The celebrant then sprinkles the palms with lustral water, not saying Asperges me etc. Then he puts incense on the coals of thurible and censes the palms. Here the stupidity of the wreckovators shows through. In the traditional rite incense was put on, then the Palms were aspersed and then incensed so that the incense would have a little time to fume! The palms are then distributed with the two Pueri Hebraeorum antiphons interpolated with the Bea version of psalms 23 and 46. There is no mention in the rubrics of the usual ceremonial oscula when receiving the palms. The Gospel follows, the ceremonies of Mass are not followed. The collect Deus, qui Filium is suppressed, the collect Omnipotens sempiterne Deus is suppressed.
The procession follows. In another break with tradition an additional subdeacon, rather than the subdeacon of the Mass, carries an unveiled Cross. The first three antiphons of the Old Rite are suppressed. The first antiphon sung is Occurunt turbae (with Hosanna in excelsis suppressed), then Cum angelis and Turba multa. Then a new antiphon Coeperunt omnes followed by the Gloria laus. However, vernacular hymns in honour of Christ the King may be sung. Then Lauda, Jerusalem, Fulgentibus palmis, Ave, Rex noster and Ingrediente. There is no ceremonial re-entry (although Econe would pick this and incorporate it into their adaptation of 1962, as they quietly ignore the kitchen table for the palms). When the ministers reach the sanctuary they reverence the altar then turn, versus populum, to sing a collect introduced to the rite Domine Jesu Christi, Rex ac Redemptor noster. This collect is found in many medieval uses as a collect said at the Rood.
The sacred ministers then change in schizophrenic style from red to violet. No folded chasubles of course, but dalmatic and tunicle. The prayers at the foot of the altar are suppressed and the celebrant merely kisses the altar and censes it. The deacons of the Passion receive a blessing, rather than the deacon of the Mass, and sing a cut down version of the Passion. The Passion text is Matthew 26: 36-75; 27: 1-54. The former Gospel is omitted both textually and ceremonially. Palms are not held during the singing of the Passion. The dismissal is Ite, missa est and the last Gospel is suppressed. At Vespers there are no commemorations.
Shame on old Pius XII! A once beautiful day lies like a bleeding rape victim in the gutter. Whilst some of the traditional rite was undoubtedly less than a thousand years old it is rather beautiful and worked. More florid uses, such as Sarum, were arguably 'over developed' in the sense that the Procession of Palms became very complex in that the Palm Procession effectively merged with a Blessed Sacrament Procession etc. The old Roman form seems to get the balance right. The new form, a classic of inorganic committee work created liturgy, tried to give the Procession greater prominence but rather like a Victorian architect 'restoring' a medieval church mutilated it in the process. There is something intrinsically odd about wearing red vestments - a festive colour in the Roman rite - and then changing to a penitential colour for the Eucharistic Sacrifice. In the Roman rite this is an inversion of received praxis and hitherto whilst Processions may have been in violet penitential vestments the Mass afterwards, if there was a colour change, was always festive eg. Candlemass (violet to white), St. Mark as titular (violet to red). As on other days in the 'restored' Holy Week the opportunity was taken to make changes that would be later extended to the entire liturgical year e.g. the obsession with versus populum, introduction of the vernacular, the suppression of the preparatory prayers at the altar steps, the suppression of the last Gospel etc. Holy Week was used as a type of 'trial run' for some of the worst of the later reforms.
Rather ironically perhaps one can only cry out Judica me, Deus, et discerne causam meam de gente non sancta: ab homine iniquo et doloso erue me!
Friday, 26 March 2010
Today, Friday in Passion week, is the feast of the Seven Sorrows of the BVM. It is of greater-double rite. In the Breviary and Missal the texts for the feast are found in the Sanctoral at the end of March. The liturgical colour is white.
This year, because of the Annunciation yesterday, the feast begins with Mattins. The invitatory is proper. The hymn is Stabat mater dolorosa, displaced from the non-celebrated first Vespers. The antiphons and psalms are proper (the first antiphon Astiterunt, of course is the same antiphon sung at Tenebrae of Good Friday). The lessons in the first nocturn are from Isaiah. In the second nocturn the lessons are from a sermon of St. Bernard. In the third nocturn the lessons are taken from a homily of St. Augustine on St. John's Gospel. The ninth lesson is the homily for Friday in Passion week. The Te Deum is sung. At Lauds the antiphons, Vadam ad montem etc, are proper and sung with the Dominical psalms. The Office hymn at Lauds is Sancta mater, displaced from Mattins. After the collect of the feast a commemoration is sung of the Passiontide feria.
At Prime and the other Hours the hymns are sung to a special tone of the Doxology: Jesu tibi sit gloria, Qui passus es pro servulis, Cum Patre et almo Spiritu, In sempiterna saecula. At Prime the festal psalms are sung (Pss. 53, 118i & 118ii). In the short responsory the verse Qui passus es propter nostram salutem is sung. The short lesson is proper to the feast Generationem ejus etc.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of Friday in Passion week. After the Tract Stabat Mater is sung as a sequence. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the BVM with the clause Et te in Transfixione and the last Gospel is of Friday in Passion week.
Private Masses may be of the Friday in Passion week with a commemoration (and last Gospel) of the Seven Sorrows.
In Cathedral and Collegiate churches the Mass of the Seven Sorrows is celebrated after Terce without a commemoration, or last Gospel of the Friday in Passion week. After None Mass is celebrated of the Friday in Passion week. The liturgical colour is violet and the ministers wear violet chasubles. The second collect is Ecclesiae, the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino and the last Gospel In principio.
Second Vespers are celebrated after Mass. All is as otherwise would have been celebrated at first Vespers except the Office hymn is Virgo virginum (displaced from Lauds), the versicle and response and antiphon on the Magnificat are proper to second Vespers. A commemoration is sung of the following Office of St. John of Damascus (with the antiphon for Doctors: O Doctor optime...beate Joannes...) and then a commemoration of the Passiontide feria is sung. At Compline Te lucis is sung to with the tone of the proper Doxology.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Office of the Seven Sorrows has been reduced to a commemoration in the Office of the Friday of the 'first week of Passion'. However a rubric in the 1962 Missal allows two Masses of the former feast to be celebrated for pastoral reasons here devotion to the feast exists.
Thursday, 25 March 2010
The AAS contains the official text of decrees from the pope and the Roman Dicasteries. This is a truly invaluable resource for students of Liturgy, Canon Law and Church History.
I was planning a trip tomorrow to visit the library of Allen Hall Seminary where the only accesible set of 'on the shelf' volumes of AAS now exist in London (as far as I am aware). I have been researching editiones typicae of the Missal and their promulgation in an attempt to resolve a question raised by a friend in Newcastle. The Vatican has saved me the hassle and the tube and bus fare!
Having briefly purused the 1920 volume on-line a few moments ago and was able to find an answer to a question posed to me about today's great feast by a valued customer in Ireland that it had hitherto taken me over five years not to find an answer.
A brilliant resource - thank you Vatican Official whoever you are for the hours of work clearly involved.
This great feast began with first Vespers yesterday morning. The liturgical colour of the day is white. Where resources permit six pluvialistae assist the Hebdomadarius at both Vespers and Lauds. At Vespers the antiphons are proper, beginning with Missus est Gabriel Angelus ad Mariam etc. The psalms are those from the Common of the BVM (Pss.109, 112, 121, 126 & 147). The chapter is proper to the feast, the beautiful Office hymn, Ave Maris stella, from the Common. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect are proper. After the collect of the feast Wednesday in Passion week was commemorated with the antiphon Multa bona opera, V&R and collect Adesto supplicationibus nostris. At Compline the Dominical psalms were sung. The hymn, Te lucis, was sung with the Doxology in honour of the Incarnation, Jesu tibi sit gloria etc, with the hymn sung to the special tone used with that Doxology.
At Mattins the invitatory is Ave Maria gratia plena * Dominus tecum. The hymn, antiphons and psalms (with the exception of the ninth antiphon) are from the Common. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the Prophet Isaiah. The responsories are proper to the feast and are paricularly beautiful. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from a sermon by St. Leon on the Nativity of the LORD. In the third nocturn the ninth antiphon is Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae etc. The lessons are from a homily by St. Ambrose's second book on Luke. The ninth lesson may be read as one with the eighth. The ninth lesson is of the commemorated Passiontide ferial day, a homily of St. Gregory: its three lessons may be joined and read as the ninth lesson. The Te Deum is sung. At Lauds the antiphons are those used before at Vespers. These are sung with the Dominical psalms. Again the chapter and antiphon on the Benedictus are proper, the Office hymn is from the Common. A commemoration of Thursday in Passion week is sung after the collect of the day.
At Prime the hymn is sung to the tone and Doxology of the Incarnation. In the short responsory the verse Qui natus es is sung and the short lesson is proper to the feast, Egredietur virga de radice Jesse etc. The antiphons of Lauds are used throughout the Little Hours. At all the Little Hours the hymns are sung to the tone and Doxology of the Incarnation.
Mass is sung after Terce. At Mass the Gloria is sung, the Passiontide feria is commemorated by the second collect. The Gospel pericope is from St. Luke and the account of the Angel Gabriel's visit to the Virgin. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the BVM, with the clause Et te in Annuntiatione, the last Gospel is that of the commemorated Passiontide feria, also from St. Luke, Rogabat Jesum quidam de pharisaeis etc.
Vespers, even of this great feast, are sung before midday. The antiphons and psalms are sung as at first Vespers. The antiphon on the Magnificat is proper. A commemoration of Thursday in Passion week is sung. Tomorrow's feast of the Seven Sorrows is not commemorated at Vespers as it is considered, rubrically speaking, to be the same mystery. At Compline again the Dominical psalms are sung and Te lucis is sung to the tone and Doxology of the Incarnation.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the hymns of the Little Hours do not have the Doxology or tone of the Incarnation. At Prime the short lesson is of the season not proper to the feast. At Mass there is no last Gospel of the Passiontide feria.
Wednesday, 24 March 2010
Br. Alexis Bugnolo has produced a 'cheat sheet' for Mattins and Lauds, containing the Apostles Creed in Latin, Venite exsultemus, Te Deum and the Dominical Lauds psalms as used on Sundays per annum and feasts.
The other sheet gives the prayers before and after the Hours.
Br. Alexis wrote recently:
'On the Feast of St. Pius V, May 5, 2009, His Excellency Monsignor Ignazio Zambito, Bishop of Patti, Sicily, gave Br. Alexis Bugnolo (a former member of the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate) the go ahead to form a community of traditional Franciscan religious and to accept vocations (priests & brothers). The community's charism will be the unmitigated observance of the Rule of St. Francis, according to the Pontifical Decrees of Popes Nicholas III, Clement V, and Bl.Innocent XI; and be dedicated to the exclusive use of the pre-bugninian liturgical books of the Order of Friars Minor. For more information please contact Br. Bugnolo by surface mail: via Umberto I, 261; 98030 Floresta (ME), Italia.'
Br. Alexis is fluent in both English and Italian. He has specifically requested that if anyone is interested in his community they contact him by writing to the address given above.
[Postcode above corrected - Thank you Br. Alexis]
Sunday, 21 March 2010
Passion Sunday is the fifth and penultimate Sunday in Lent. It is a semi-double Sunday of the first class.
The most apparent and visually striking feature of this Sunday is the Roman practice of veiling all crosses and images with violet cloth. Although the practice of veiling images for the duration of Lent e.g., the Lenten Array, the Lenten Veil or Cortina etc., is ancient the practice of Passiontide veiling appears to have only become universal for the Roman rite in relatively recent times. The custom seems to have developed from the words in the day's Gospel 'Jesus autem abscondit se' - but Jesus hid himself. The veiling takes place after Mass on the morning of Saturday before Passion Sunday before Vespers.
Yesterday morning's Vespers, along with the veiling, shows certain more penitential aspects in the Office. The Gloria Patri is omitted from the invitatory of Mattins, from the responsories of Mattins and from the short responsories of the Hours. It is also omitted from the Asperges ceremony before Mass on both Passion Sunday and on Palm Sunday. In Masses 'of the season' Gloria Patri is also omitted from the introit and Lavabo along with the psalm Judica me Deus. The Suffrage of the Saints is also omitted until after Trinity Sunday.
At Vespers the antiphons and psalms were of Saturday, the chapter proper to the Sunday. The Office hymn changes to the poignant and magnificent Vexilla Regis prodeunt. This hymn is sung at Vespers throughout Passiontide and at the Mass of the Pre-Sanctified on Good Friday. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect were proper to the Sunday. A commemoration was then sung of St. Benedict. At Compline, as noted above, the Lesser Doxology was omitted from the short responsory. The Dominical preces were not said because of the occurring double feast.
At Mattins the invitatory is Hodie, si vocem Domini audieritis, Nolite obdurare corda vestra from Ps. 94 and a special rubric indicates the omission of that verse in the psalm. The hymn is Pange, lingua. The same invitatory and hymn are sung until the Sacred Triduum. The antiphons given in the Psalter for Sundays are used. As usual Mattins has three nocturns and nine lessons. In the first nocturn the lessons are the Incipit of the book of Jeremiah. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the ninth sermon on Lent by St. Leo the Great. In the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Gregory on St. John's Gospel. The Te Deum is omitted as on other Lenten Sundays and a ninth responsory, Quis dabit capiti, sung in its place. At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is Lustra sex. A commemoration is sung of St. Benedict.
At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two stanzas of psalm 118. The Dominical preces are not sung because of the occurring double feast.
Mass is sung after Terce. The ministers wear folded chasubles. The Gloria is not sung. The second collect is of St. Benedict. There is no third collect in Passiontide. As usual in Lent a Tract is sung after the Gradual. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Cross and the dismissal Benedicamus Domino.
(Note the veiled altar cross and images and the use of the folded chasuble in the photograph from the New Liturgical Movement above)
Vespers are of the Sunday (sung at the normal time). The antiphons and psalms are those used on Sundays, the chapter is proper and the hymn Vexilla regis prodeunt. A commemoration is sung of St. Benedict (which by a 'typo' is missing in Ordo 2010). At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted because of the commemorated double feast at Vespers.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Mattins is cut down to three lessons as usual. St. Benedict is omitted this year, there are no commemorations at either Vespers, Lauds or Mass. At Prime the psalms are 53 and the first two stanzas of 118. At Mass thedismissal is Ite, missa est. The ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle instead of folded chasubles.
Art (top): Jerome Nadal
Friday, 19 March 2010
The feast of St. Joseph Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a double of the first class. The Office is proper.
The feast began with first Vespers on Thursday morning. Where the resources allow, six pluvialistae assist the Hebdomadarius, all wearing white copes. The solemn tone of Deus, adjutorium may be used. The antiphons were proper, Jacob autem etc, with the psalms from the Common of Apostles in Paschaltide (without, of course, the Alleluias). The hymn was Te Joseph celebrent agmina caelitum. A commemoration of the Lenten feria was made (Thursday in the fourth week). At Compline the Sunday psalms were sung.
At Mattins the invitatory, Christum Dei Filium, qui putari dignatus est filius Joseph, venite adoremus, is proper. The Office hymn at Mattins is Caelitum, Joseph decus atque nostrae. The antiphons are proper and the lessons in the first nocturn are from the Book of Genesis and the story of Joseph, using the Old Testament Joseph as a 'type' for St. Joseph. The second nocturn lessons are a sermon from St. Bernard and in the third nocturn the lessons are from a homily from St. Jerome on the first chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel. The ninth lesson is of the Lenten feria, which is a homily from the writings of St. Augustine. Although the ninth lesson of St. Joseph may be omitted and only the first lesson of the feria sung it is permissible, and the better practice to combine the eighth and ninth lessons of the feast, Anetequam convenirent... and Joseph autem... and read them as one and then read all three lessons of the Lenten ferial day as the ninth lesson. The Te Deum is sung after the ninth lesson. Again at Lauds six pluvialistae assist the Hebdomadarius. At Lauds the antiphons are again proper, Ibant parentes etc, and the Dominical psalms sung. A commemoration is made of the Lenten feria.
At the Hours the antiphons are proper and the psalms festal. At Prime the Sunday psalms are sung (Pss. 53, 118(i) & 118(ii). The short lesson, Profugum justum, is proper to the feast.
Mass follows Terce. The Gloria is sung. The second collect is a commemoration of the Lenten feria. The Credo is sung, the preface is of St. Joseph and the last Gospel is of the Lenten feria.
Second Vespers are, as for all weekdays of Lent, sung before mid-day, even on a great feast. The antiphons are those used at Lauds. A commemoration of the Lenten feria is made. At Compline the Sunday psalms are sung.
In the 1960s liturgical books St. Joseph's feast become a 1st class and is entitled 'St. Joseph Sponse of the BVM and Patron of the Universal Church' reflecting the axing by Pius XII of the more modern Solemnity of St. Joseph in Paschaltide. At Mattins there is no ninth lesson of the Lenten ferial day. At the Hours the antiphons are doubled and at Prime the short lesson is of the season. St. Joseph did not fare well under two of the twentieth century popes by the name of Pius as I commented in last years post.
Sunday, 14 March 2010
The Fourth Sunday in Lent is known as Laetare Sunday after the opening words of the Introit at its Mass Laetare, Jerusalem - Rejoice Jerusalem, and is also known as 'mid-Lent' Sunday and is also Mothering Sunday in many countries including the United Kingdom. It is a semi-double Sunday of the first class.
The distinguishing feature of this Sunday, in relatively modern times, is the use of rose coloured vestments. Rose is perceived as a lighter shade of violet and the use of rose vestments developed from the older praxis of a golden rose being given to female monarchs by the pope on this day. The use of rose vestments does not appear to go back further than about the sixteenth century. Cardinals of the Court of Rome wore rose choir dress too on this Sunday along with the corresponding Gaudete Sunday in Advent. In Lent Cardinals wore their 'winter violet' cassock, mantelletum and mozzeta (not the violet watered silk of their 'summer violet). The 'winter' material was of merino but on Laetare Sunday they wore watered rose silk and, presumably, hoped for mild weather. This practice disappeared during the 1920s.
In the developed practice the altar is dressed after Mass has been sung on Saturday morning with rose antipendia. Then Vespers were sung. The antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The chapter was proper, the hymn Audi benigne Conditor. The Suffrage of the Saints was sung after the collect of the day. At Compline the Dominical preces were sung.
At Mattins the invitatory is, as previous Sundays of Lent, Non sit vobis and the hymn Ex more. The antiphons given in the Psalter for Sundays are used. As usual Mattins has three nocturns and nine lessons. In the first nocturn the lessons are from Exodus and the story of Moses and the Burning Bush. In the second nocturn they are from St. Basil the Great on fasting and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Augustine on St. John's Gospel. At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, the canticle Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the day the Suffrage of the Saint is sung.
At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two stanzas of 118. The Dominical preces are sung and the short lesson is Quaerite Dominum.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is not sung. The second collect is A cunctis, the third Omnipotens, a Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Credo is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal Benedicamus Domino. As folded chasubles are not worn the organ may be played. In the absences of rose vestments violet are worn, the deacon and subdeacon wearing dalmatic and tunicle.
Vespers are of the Sunday (sung at the normal time). The antiphons and psalms are those used on Sundays, the chapter is proper and the hymn Audi, benigne Conditor. The Suffrage of the Saints is sung after the collect of the Sunday. At Compline the Dominical preces are sung.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Mattins is cut down to three lessons. At Lauds the Suffrage of the Saints is omitted. At Prime the psalms are 53 and the first two stanzas of 118, the Domincial preces are omitted. At Mass the second and third collects are omitted. The dismissal is Ite, missa est. At Vespers the Suffrage of the Saints is omitted and at Compline the Dominical preces not sung.
Art: Jerome Nadal
Friday, 12 March 2010
This consists of the antiphon Christus factus est etc followed by a silent Pater noster. Then the Miserere is recited on a low note (unless one is fortunate to have the choir singing Allegri's setting etc.) After the psalm, without Oremus, the prayer Respice is then monotoned by the Celebrant. Its conclusion is added silently.
At Tenebrae the antiphon Christus factus est is sung. At the other Hours it is recited.
To save having to turn the pages of one's choir books to find these texts, printed after Lauds, download this 'Cheat Sheet' (it will make two copies) and keep it in the book being used. Make sure all those in choir have a copy. When the end of each Hour is reached there will be no need to fiddle with turning back pages and the Hour can be finished without any irritating hiatus. After Respice simply move the cheat sheet to the end of the next Hour.
The Little Hours in the Triduum require very little in terms of effort, resources and time. Each of the Hours takes barely five minutes to recite. Whilst ideal if there are several people each side of choir to alternate their chanting as a minimum the Hours can be done with two people.
Having the Hours makes so much difference and adds to the completeness of the Triduum with minimal input. Why not decide now to start twenty minutes earlier each morning of the Triduum and have Prime, Terce, Sext and None - it really is well worth it! Likewise Compline. On Mandy [sic] Thursday and Good Friday Compline is so short and simple that it can be celebrated during the time it takes to light the altar candles and the candles on the Tenebrae hearse. An excellent 'warm up' for Mattins too...
Thursday, 11 March 2010
Readers may, or may not, find the following of practical use as we prepare for the Triduum.
Instructions on how to make a simple Tenebrae Hearse can be found here.
Instructions on how to make a Triple Candle can be found here.
N.B. The 3" - 4" in reference to the hole refers to its depth, not width - I'll amend the pdf file, sometime, to make that clear.
Sunday, 7 March 2010
The third Sunday in Lent is semi-double of the first class. No feast my be celebrated if it falls on such a Sunday. The Gospel pericopes from St. Luke recount the LORD casting out evil from a demoniac.
At Vespers yesterday morning the antiphons and psalms were of Saturday, the chapter proper, the hymn Audi benigne conditor was sung. A commemoration of the preceding feast of SS Perpetual and Felicity was sung followed by a commemoration of St. Thomas Aquinas. At Compline the Dominical preces were omitted due to the occuring double feasts.
At Mattins the invitatory is Non sit vobis and the hymn is Ex more, as on the other Sundays of Lent. The antiphons and psalms of Sunday are sung. In the first nocturn the lessons are from Genesis and the story of Joseph, his coat of many colours and his brothers casting him into a pit. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the Book of St. Augustine on Joseph. In the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of the Venerable Bede on St. Luke's Gospel. A ninth responsory, Lamentabatur Jacob, is sung in place of the Te Deum.
At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the day a commemoration of St. Thomas Aquinas is sung.
At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two stanzas of 118. The Dominical preces are omitted due to the double feast.
Mass is sung after Terce. The deacon and subdeacon wear folded chasubles, planetis plicatis, instead of dalmatic and tunicle. There is no Gloria. The second collect is of St. Thomas Aquinas. The the third collect is omitted today because of the double feast. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Credo is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino.
Vespers are of the Sunday, sung at the normal time. The antiphons and psalms are those used on Sundays, the chapter is proper and the hymn Audi, benigne Conditor. Commemorations are sung of the following feast of St. John of God and St. Thomas Aquinas. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted and the Domincal preces are not sung at Compline due to the commemorated double feasts.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Mattins is cut down to one nocturn of three lessons as usual with the omission of most of the lessons and responsories. At Lauds the commemoration of St. Thomas Aquinas is omitted. At Prime the psalms are 53 and the first two stanzas of 118, the Domincial preces are omitted regardless of whether a double feast occurrs or not. At Mass the ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, as in Septuagesima, there is only one collect. The dismissal is Ite, missa est. At Vespers there are no commemorations.
Art: Jerome Nadal
Friday, 5 March 2010
Today, Friday in the Second Week of Lent, will be used as an example to look in more detail at the structure of the Lenten liturgy. It may be of interest to compare with the Tridentine praxis, where the temporal cycle, this year, is now in synchrony between the Gregorian and Julian Calendars (although, of course, the Sanctorale is not).
At Mattins the invitatory, as on other ferial days and Sundays in the first four weeks of Lent, is Non sit vobis. The hymn is Ex more docti. Mattins has one nocturn of nine psalms and three lessons. As the rite is simple the antiphons (those given with their psalms in the Breviary at Feria Sexta Ad Matutinum) are not doubled. The nine psalms and antiphons are sung straight through ignoring the divisions marked for three nocturns for when an Office of nine lessons is sung. After the ninth antiphon is repeated the versicle Scapulis suis obumbrabit tibi with its response Et sub pennis ejus sperabis. The Pater noster is then said, sub secreto, followed by Et ne nos in inducas in tentationem and the response Sed libera nos a malo. The Absolution for Fridays is Ipsius pietas etc. The first reader (who as it is a Gospel to be read must be in deacon's orders or above) asks for a blessing with Jube, domne benedicere and the Officiant respond with Evangelica lectio etc. The reader chants the Gospel fragment from St. Matthew and then continues with Homilia sancti Ambrosi Episcopi. Plerique varias significantiones etc until its end concluding with Tu autem Domine miserere. The Choir respond Deo gratias. The first responsory Dum exiret Jacob etc is then sung. Then the second reader asks for a blessing, the Officiant sings Divinum auxillium etc and the reader then chants the second lesson, Unde bene secundum etc. The second responsory Si Dominus, Deus meus is then sung. The Officiant receives the blessing Ad societatem from the senior member of Choir and sings the third lesson, Aedificavit turrim etc. After the third lesson the responsory Erit mihi Dominus is sung.
Lauds follow immediately. The antiphons and psalms given in the Breviary Feria Sexta ad Laudes II are used (Pss. 50, 142, 84, Canticle of Habacuc, 147). After the chapter Clama, ne cesses etc the hymn O sol salutis is sung followed by the versicle Angelis suis mandavit de te and its response Ut custodiant te in omnibus viis tuis. The antiphon on the Benedictus is found in the Breviary with the Mattins lessons for the Friday in the Second Week of Lent. Only the fragment Malos male perdet is sung before the Canticle. The entire antiphon is then repeated. The the Choir kneels and the ferial preces are chanted. These begin with Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison, the the Pater noster chanted aloud by the Officiant alone, followed by a series of intercessions in format of versicles and responses. The collect of the day is then sung followed by the Suffrage of the Saints.
At Prime, again from the ferial psalter, the psalm displaced from Lauds by the Miserere, Ps. 98 is added after the three psalms (or rather three psalms fragments). The ferial chapter Pacem et veritatem is sung and then both the Dominical and ferial preces are sung, the Choir kneeling. Terce, Sext and None are all from the ferial psalter with the antiphons and chapters indicated in the Breviary for Lent. The short set of ferial preces are sung, again kneeling, at each of these Hours.
Mass is sung after None. As with all days from Ash Wednesday through Lent the Mass is proper to each day. For a 'greater feria' four candles are placed on the altar. The deacon and subdeacon wear folded chasubles and the ferial tones are used for the orations, preface and Pater noster. The introit is Ego autem cum justitia. There is no Gloria. The second collect is A cunctis, the third collect is Omnipotens. The preface is of Lent, after the last post-Communion oration the Oratio super populum is sung. The dismissal is Benedicamus Domino.
After Mass the liturgical mood changes somewhat and first Vespers of SS Perpetua and Felicity are sung this morning. The altar is vested in red. Although the antiphons and psalms are taken from the Breviary Feria Sexta ad Vesperas the antiphons are sung entire before and after each psalm. The chapter is Confitebor tibi from the Common of Non-Virgins from which the hymn, Fortem virili pectore, also comes. The antiphon on the Magnificat, Istarum est enim is sung in its entirety both before and after the Canticle. After the collect of the feast the Lenten feria is commemorated with the antiphon Quaeretes eum tenere etc, the versicle Angelis suis etc and the collect Da, quaesumus Domine. At the usual time Compline the psalms again come from the ferial psalter but the preces are not sung because of the double rank feast.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' all antiphons are doubled. At Lauds the Suffrage of the Saints is omitted. There are neither Dominical or ferial preces at Prime, nor a fourth psalm and the chapter is Regi saeculorum. The ferial preces are not sung at the other Little Hours. At Mass the ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle. There is only one collect sung. The dismissal is Ite, missa est. Vespers are sung as at other times of the year. Vespers are ferial, the ferial preces are said but there is neither Suffrage or even a commemoration of SS Perpetual and Felicity.
Image: one of two extant violet chasubles designed and worn, possibly in Lent, by the great Adrian Fortescue DD.