Wednesday 28 April 2010
Today is the Octave Day of the Solemnity of St. Joseph Patron of the Universal Church. It is of greater double rite. The feast of St. Paul of the Cross this year is simplified to a commemoration by the occurring Octave Day.
At Mattins in the first nocturn the lessons are from occurring Scripture, in the second nocturn the lessons are a sermon from St. Augustine on marriage and concupiscence and the writings of St. Augustine again provide lessons on the Gospel of St. Luke for the third nocturn. The ninth lesson is of St. Paul of the Cross. (This is an example of when the contracted lesson, found for many feasts of nine lessons in the Pius X Breviary after the lessons of the second nocturn is used.)
At Lauds commemorations are sung of St. Paul of the Cross and St. Vitalis. Hymns of Iambic metre of course have the Paschaltide Doxology.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of St. Paul of the Cross, the third collect of St. Vitalis. The Credo is sung, the preface of St. Joseph.
At Vespers a commemoration is made of the following Office of St. Peter Martyr and St. Paul of the Cross.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' there is of course no Octave Day, no Octave and no Solemnity of St. Joseph. St. Paul of the Cross gets cut down from a feast of nine lessons to a third class feast. Mattins has one nocturn. The hymns of the Little Hours do not have the Paschaltide Doxology. St. Vitalis has been supressed. There are no commemorations at Vespers.
Sunday 25 April 2010
Today is the feast of St. Mark the Evangelist and the day of the 'Greater Litanies'. The semi-double third Sunday after Pascha is out-ranked by the Double Second Class rank of St. Mark's feast.
St. Mark was particularly close to St. Peter. He is one of the Four Evangelists and is traditionally represented by a lion (as can be seen in the icon above) as it is one of the four beasts in the Prophecy of Ezechiel. St. Mark preached in Egypt and was martyred in Alexandria. The Greater Litanies, now associated with St. Mark's feast, have no real connection. In ancient Rome a procession was held on April 25th to celebrate the feast of Robigalia. This was later Christianised into the Greater Litanies. The Litany and Procession today is much older than the Rogation Days before the feast of the Ascension and the term 'Greater Litanies', as opposed to 'Lesser Litanies' reflects the greater antiquity and solemnity of the day. When a Procession cannot take place those with an obligation to the Divine Office are required to recite the Litany of the Saints.
At Vespers yesteray afternoon first Vespers of the feast were sung. The antiphons and psalms were taken from first Vespers of Apostles in Paschaltide. Commemorations were sung of the preceding Office of St. Fidelis of Sigmaringa and the Sunday. At Compline the Dominical psalms were sung, the Paschaltide Doxology being sung with Te lucis. The Dominical preces were omitted because of the occurring double feast (and being within an Octave).
At Mattins the invitatory, hymn, antiphon on the psalms of each nocturn are from the Common of Apostles. In the first nocturn the lesson are the Incipit of the Book of the Prophet Ezechiel, Et factum est trigesimo anno etc., from the Common of Evangelists in Paschaltide. The responsories are also from this Common. In the second nocturn lessons four and five are from St. Jerome on ecclesiastic writers, the sixth lesson is from St. Gregory's writing on Ezechiel. In the third nocturn the homily is from the Common of Evangelists along with the responsories. The eighth and ninth lessons may be read as one and the ninth lesson is of the commemorated Sunday. The three lessons of its homily, the Incipit of the Book of the Apocalypse may be read together as the ninth lesson, but only the first suffices for the obligation. The Te Deum is sung.
At Lauds the antiphons Sancti tui etc from the Common of Apostles are sung with the Dominical psalms (Pss. 92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148). A commemoration of the Sunday is sung after the collect of the day.
At the Hours the hymns have the Doxology of Paschaltide. At Prime the festal psalms are sung (Pss. 53, 118i & 118ii).
Mass is sung after Terce. After the Vidi aquam the Mass, Protexisti, is sung. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Sunday, the third collect of the Rogations (from the Mass Exaudivit). The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Apostles and the last Gospel is of the Sunday.
When the Procession takes place (for details read below) and there is only one Mass then the Mass Exaudivit is sung, celebrated in violet vestments. There is no Gloria, the second collect is of St. Mark, the third collect is of the Sunday. There is no Creed. The preface of Paschaltide is sung, the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino and the last Gospel is of the Sunday. (If a church is dedicated to St. Mark then the Mass of St. Mark is sung as above).
In Cathedral and Collegiate Churches two High Masses are celebrated today. After Terce has been sung the Vidi aquam is sung and the aspersion take place as usual on all Sundays. Mass is sung of St. Mark, the Mass is proper beginning with the introit Protexisti me etc. The Gloria is sung the second collect is of the Sunday, the Creed is sung, the preface that of the Apostles and the last Gospel that of the Sunday. Sext and None are then sung as usual.
The the altar frontal etc is then changed to violet and the Paschal Candle extinguished. The ministers vest in violet vestments, the deacon and subdeacon wearing dalmatic and tunicle respetively, the celebrant in a violet cope. A procession is formed to the altar. The crucifer and acolytes pass to the Gospel side. As the sacred minister arrive before the altar they make the usual reverence to the altar and choir and then kneel and pray for a short while. When they rise the cantors begin the antiphon Exsurge Domine. The choir continue....adjuva nos, et libera nos, propter nomen tuam. Ps. Deus auribus nostris audivimus patres nostri annuntiaverunt nobis. Gloria Patri etc, Sicut erat etc and then Exsurge Domine is repeated. All all kneel (except the crucifer and acolytes who go and stand at the entrance of the choir) and the cantors then begin the Litany of the Saints. This is sung in the full form, and not the shorter form used on Holy Saturday. Each invocation is doubled, i.e. the cantors sing e.g. Pater de caelis, Deus, miserere nobis and this is repeated in its entirety by everyone else. When Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis has been repeated all rise and the Procession sets off.
The Procession goes outside of the Church and may visit other Churches on its route. In this case the celebrant is offered lustral water at the entrance to the church and processes to the High Altar. After a moment for silent prayer the choir signs the antiphon of the patron of the church, its versicle and response (with Alleluia added as it is Paschaltide) and the celebrant sings the collect of the Patron. The Litany is then resumed and the Procession continues. If the Procession has a long route the Litany, from Sancta Maria etc may be repeated or the Seven Penitential Psalms sung to the tonus in directum. When the Procession enters the church where Mass will be celebrated, lustral water is received on entering and the Procession goes to the sanctuary. All kneel as the Litany ends. The celebrant intones Pater noster etc and then the cantors sing psalm 69. After the versicles that follow the celebrant stands to sing the ten collects. He then kneels again as Exadiat nos etc is sung. The ministers then rise and the celebrant changes from a cope to chasuble and all put on their maniples. The Mass Exaudivit is then sung. The chants are those used for ferial Masses. The Gloria is not sung, the additional prayers of the season, only, are sung. There is no Creed. The preface of Paschaltide is sung to the ferial tone, the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino. The Paschal Candle is not lit during the Procession and Rogation Mass.
The altar is then changed from violet to festal red and Second Vespers of St. Mark are sung. The antiphons for Vespers of Apostles in Paschaltide are sung with psalms 109, 112, 115, 125 & 138. The Office hymn is Tristes erant Apostoli which is sung of course with the Paschaltide Doxology. Commemorations are sung of the following Office of SS Cletus and Marcellinus and the Sunday. Compline is festal, Te lucis has the Paschal Doxology.
For those requiring more complex rubrics the feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph, prior to the 1911-13 reform, was celebrated on this Sunday. The rubrics allow all Masses, with the exception of Conventual Masses, to be of the Solemnity of St. Joseph. The Mass Adjutor is sung, the Gloria is sung, the second collect is of St. Mark, the third collect of the Sunday and the fourth collect is of the Rogations. The Creed is sung and the preface is of St. Joseph. The last Gospel is of the Sunday.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' St. Mark gets cut down to a mere commemoration at Lauds and Low Mass. The third Sunday after Pascha is celebrated but that too, of course, is cut down from three nocturns at Mattins to one. At Vespers there was no commemoration of St. Mark or of the preceding Office. At Compline the ferial psalms are used. At the Hours the Paschal Doxology is not sung. At Prime the Dominical psalms are sung. At Conventual Masses the Rogations are commemorated. When the Procession takes place the Litanies are not doubled the cantors sing e.g. Pater de caelis, Deus (only) and the choir responds Miserere nobis. At the Mass following the Procession all of the prayers at the foot of the altar are excised, even if the Mass is not of the Rogations. The Sunday is commemorated, the Creed is sung, the dismissal is Ite, Missa est. In Vespers of the Sunday there is no commemoration of St. Mark or the following Office.
Art: A Coptic icon of St. Mark from Wikipedia.
Thursday 22 April 2010
Today, the Office is of SS Soter and Cajus. The Paschaltide Doxology is sung at all hymns of the Little Hours. At Lauds a commemoration is sung of the Octave of St. Joseph. The Commemoration of the Cross is omitted because of the Octave. At Prime the Dominical preces are omitted because of being within an Octave.
At Mass the Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Octave, the third collect is Concede nos. The Creed is sung because of the Octave and the preface is that of the Octave. Private Masses may be of the Octave of the Solemnity of St. Joseph with the Gloria, second collect of SS Soter and Cajus, third collect Concede nos, the Creed and preface of St. Joseph.
Vespers are from the chapter of the following feast of St. George with commemorations of the preceding feast of SS Soter and Cajus and of the Octave. The Commemoration of the Cross is omitted being in an Octave as are the Dominical preces at Compline.
(Of course, here in England where the Ordo is compiled Vespers are first Vespers of St. George Patron of England, where the feast is a Double of the First Class with Octave. Here the two Octaves overlap and are both celebrated - the Octave of St. Joseph being commemorated before that of St. George).
On Friday, St. George's feast, again the Paschaltide Doxlogy is sung at all hymns of Iambic metre. At Lauds a commemoration is sung of the Octave of St. Joseph. The Commemoration of the Cross is omitted because of the Octave. At Prime the Dominical preces are omitted because of being within an Octave.
At Mass the Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Octave, the third collect is Concede nos. The Creed is sung because of the Octave and the preface is that of the Octave. Private Masses may be of the Octave of the Solemnity of St. Joseph with the Gloria, second collect of St. George, third collect Concede nos, the Creed and preface of St. Joseph.
Vespers are of the following feast of St. Fidelis of Sigmaringa with a commemoration of the preceding Office of St. George and the Octave of St. Joseph.
In 'the liturgical books of 1962' the semi-double feast of SS Soter and Cajus is cut down to a third class feast of three lessons. There is no Octave to commemorate. At Mass there is one collect. Vespers are said without any commemorations. St. George is reduced even further to a mere commemoration in the ferial Office.
Wednesday 21 April 2010
Today is the Solemnity of St. Joseph Sponse of the Blessed Virgin and Patron of the Universal Church. It is a Double of the First class with an Octave. The feast was introduced into the Universal Kalendar by Pius IX in 1847 as the 'Patronage of St. Joseph' as a double of the second class to be celebrated on the third Sunday after Easter. In 1870 the feast was raised to a double of the first class and given an octave with 'Patron of the Church' added. In 1911 the feast was renamed the Solemnity of St. Joseph and became a primary double of the first class. In 1913 the celebration was moved to the Wednesday after the second Sunday after Easter. Although relatively modern the feast is a fine example of typology with the Patriarch Joseph being used as a 'type' of the foster-father of the LORD.
The feast began with first Vespers yesterday afternoon, described in the post below.
The Office is proper. At Mattins the invitatory is Laudemus Deum nostrum In veneratione beati Joseph, protectoris nostri, alleluia. The antiphons of the nocturns are proper and, as at Vespers, rather beautiful:
Angelus Domini apparuit in somnis Joseph, dicens: Surge, et accipe Puerum et Matrem ejus, et fuge in Ægyptum; et esto ibi, usque dum dicam tibi, alleluia.
Angelus Domini apparuit in somnis Joseph, dicens: Surge, et accipe Puerum et Matrem ejus, et vade in terram Israel; defunct sunt enim qui quaerebant animam Pueri, alleluia.
Consurgens Joseph, accepit Puerum et Matrem ejus, et venit in terram Israel; et habitavit in civitate, quae vocatur Nazareth, alleluia.
In the first nocturn the lessons are from the book of Genesis and are extended in comparison with St. Joseph's 19 March feast. In the second nocturn the lessons are from a sermon on St. Joseph by St. Bernardine of Siena and in the third nocturn the homily is from St. Augustine on the Gospel fragment from St. Luke. At Lauds the antiphons from Vespers are sung with the Sunday psalms (92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148). A commemoration is sung of St. Anselm.
At Prime the festal psalms (53, 118i & 118ii) are sung under the first antiphon of Lauds. At Prime and the Hours the hymns are sung with the Paschaltide Doxology.
Mass follows Terce and is proper, with the introit Adjutor. The Gloria and Creed are sung and the preface is that of St. Joseph. In private Masses a commemoration is made of St. Anselm.
(A captured image from todays Solemn High Mass for the Solemnity of St. Joseph from St. Gertrude the Great Church in Ohio. The celebrant is reading the Gospel prior to its chanting by the Deacon. St. Gertrude webcasts daily at 16:20 BST)
In second Vespers a commemoration is made of the following Office of SS Soter and Cajus.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Solemnity of St. Joseph simply does not exist as this beautiful feast was shamefully supressed in 1956. So,instead, St. Anselm is kept as a third class feast, without first Vespers, just one nocturn at Mattins etc. Even sadder the vast majoriy of those who consider themselves in some way attached to a form of usus antiquior are completely unaware of the feast's existence.
Interesting to see what happened to the Church after its Patron's feast was scrapped...
Tuesday 20 April 2010
At Mattins the Paschal invitatory is sung. The psalms of the nocturn are sung under the antiphon Alleluia. The versicle Surrexit Dominus vere, alleluia is sung with the response Et apparuit Simoni, alleluia. The absolution is Ipsius pietas etc. The lessons are a continuation of the Acts of the Apostles (chapters 17 and 18). In place of a third responsory the Te Deum is sung. At Lauds the psalms are again sung under the antiphon Alleluia. The antiphon on the Benedictus is proper, the collect of the previous Sunday. The Commemoration of the Cross is then sung.
At Prime and the Hours the hymns are sung with the Doxology and tone of Paschaltide. At the reading of the Martryrology the first entry is the announcement of tomorrows great feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph: Solemnitas sancti Joseph Sponsi beatae Mariae Virginis, Confessoris, quem Pius Nonus Pontifex Maximus, votis et precibus annuens totius catholici orbis, universalis Ecclesiae Patronum declaravit.
Mass is sung after Sext. The Mass formulary is of the previous Sunday. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is Concede nos, the third collect Ecclesiae or for the pope. The Creed is not said (it never is on days of simple rite), the preface is of Paschaltide.
Vespers are first Vespers of the great feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph, Sponse of the BVM and Patron of the Universal Church. Where resources permit six pluvialistae in pariti assist the Hebdomadarius. The antiphons are sung with the psalms for Apostles and are particularly beautiful:
Jacob autem genuit Joseph, virum Mariae, de qua natus est Jesus, qui vocatur Christus, alleluia. Ps. 109 Dixit Dominus etc
Missus est, Angelus Gabriel a Deo in civitatem Galilaeae, cui nomen Nazareth, ad Virginem desponsatam viro, cui nomen erat Joseph, alleluia. Ps. 110 Confitebor tibi etc
Ascendit autem Joseph a Galilaea de civitate Nazareth in Judaeam, in civitatem David, quae vocatur Bethlehem, alleluia. Ps. 111 Beatus vir etc
Et venerunt festinantes, et invenerunt Mariam, et Joseph, et Infantem positum in praesepio, alleluia. Ps. 112 Laudate, pueri etc
Et ipse Jesus erat incipiens quasi annorum triginta, ut putabatur, filius Joseph, alleluia. Ps. 116 Laudate Dominum etc
The chapter is Benedictiones patris and the Office hymn Te Joseph celebrent agmina Caelitum. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect are proper to the feast. At Compline the Domincal psalms are sung, Te lucis is sung with the Doxology of the tone of Paschaltide.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Commemoration of the Cross is excised from Lauds. At the Hours the Paschaltide Doxology is not sung. At Mass there is one collect. At Prime there is no announcement of the feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph as it was completely scrapped by Pius XII. More on that tomorrow. Vespers are of the ferial day.
Sunday 18 April 2010
The Second Sunday after Pascha is sometimes referred to as 'Good Shepherd Sunday' from the words of the Epistle from I Peter "For you were as sheep gone astray: but you are now converted to the shepherd and bishop of your souls" and from the Gospel where the LORD proclaims "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep." The Sunday is also often referred to as Misericordia after the opening words of the introit. The Sunday is of semi-double rite.
At Vespers yesterday afternoon the psalms of Vespers for Saturday were sung under a single antiphon, Alleluia. The chapter, Carissimi: Christus passus est pro nobis etc, was proper to the Sunday, the Office hymn was Ad regias Agni dapes. The antiphon on the Magnificat reinforced the theme of the Sunday, Ego sum pastor ovium. The Commemoration of the Cross was made after the collect of the Sunday. At Compline Te lucis was sung to the Paschal tone with the Doxology Deo Patri sit gloria etc and the Dominical preces were sung.
At Mattins the invitatory and hymn are sung as last Sunday. Again, at the nocturns the psalms are sung under one antiphon. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the Acts of the Apostles. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the first sermon on the Ascension of the Lord by St. Leo. In the third nocturn the homily is from St. Gregory. At Lauds the Sunday psalms (Pss. 92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148) are sung under a single antiphon. The Office hymn is Aurora caelum purpurat. The Commemoration of the Cross is sung after the collect of the Sunday.
At the Hours the psalms are sung under an antiphon consisting of a triple Alleluia. At Prime the Dominical psalms are sung (Pss. 117, 118i & 118ii) as are the Dominical preces.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is Concede nos, the third collect Ecclesiae or for the pope. The Credo is sung, the preface is of Paschaltide.
Vespers are of the Sunday, with the psalms sung under a single antiphon. After the collect of the day the Commmemoration of the Cross is sung. At Compline the Dominical preces are sung.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Commemoration of the Cross is excised from both Vespers and Lauds. The hymns at the Little Hours do not have the Paschaltide Doxology. The Dominical preces are not sung at either Compline or Prime. Mattins is slashed back to one nocturn. At Mass there is one collect only.
Art: Jerome Nadal
Thursday 15 April 2010
Likewise the psalms of Lauds, Vespers and the Hours are sung under a single antiphon.
On all ferial days the antiphon on the Benedictus and Magnificat is proper.
The Commemoration of the Cross is sung on semidoubles and lower ranking days outside Octaves. The structure of this commemoration is as follows:
Ant. Crucifixus surrexit a mortuis, et redemit nos, alleluia, alleluia.
V. Dicite in nationibus, alleluia. R. Quia Dominus regnavit a lingo, alleluia.
Deus, qui pro nobis Filium tuum Crucis patibulum subire voluisti, ut inimici a nobis expelleres potestatem: concede nobis, famulis tuis; ut resurrectionis gratiam consequamur. Per eumdem Dominum nostrum.
At Prime the festal Regi saeculorum is sung on all ferial days. In the short responsory the versicle Qui resurrexisti a mortuis, Alleluia, Alleluia is sung.
Apostles and Martyrs have their own Commons for Paschaltide. In other Offices Alleluia is added to the invitatory of Mattins, the antiphon of the nocturns and the versicles and their responses. A double Alleluia is added to the short responsories at the Hours and Compline.
At Mass two Alleluias are added to the Introit and in place of the Gradual after the Epistle a special Paschaltide Alleluia is sung consisting of two Alleluias followed by a verse and Alleluia and then a second verse and Alleluia.
(My, free style, translation of the rubrics in the Ordo, p.33)
Tuesday 13 April 2010
Jeffrey Tucker at the New Liturgical Movement has posted a pdf version of a fascinating book, Laudes Festivae, by the late Dom Reiser, OSB.
Download it, save it, use it and treasure it! It has a plethora of wonderful tones for rites throughout the Liturgical Year.
In the past I have arranged for it to be used at Mattins of the Nativity, for the second nocturns of Tenebrae and other services of Holy Week. My personal favourite is the wonderful fifth tone setting of the Twelfth Prophecy on Holy Saturday.
I first heard it sung in Durham at Dr. Glover's Triduum by the late Richard Holban in 1991. I had heard about this setting for the twelfth prophecy (there are actually at least two settings) from the late Fr. Michael Crowdy. When I approached Richard about it he subsequently asked the late (yes, most of the best people I have known seem to have departed this life) Fr. Sir Hugh Barrett-Lennard Bt. if he knew anything about it. Those familiar with the late Sir Hugh's splendidly unique and eccentric style will not be surprised to learn that he responded by signing the entire prophecy from memory on the spot. Those not familiar with Sir Hugh may gain a flavour of what they missed from this obituary. This year at the Triduum I served I had the honour of singing it, not as well as Richard would have done, but at least I did sing it, and enjoyed doing so immensely.
Twenty years ago a then novice at Ealing Abbey, in West London, gave me a copy of this book, for which I am very grateful. Dom Reiser had also composed some, unpublished, very ornate settings of the Lamentations of Jeremy. One year we used those too at Durham...
This is a lovely resource. Do download it and do use it!
Sunday 11 April 2010
Low Sunday or the Octave of Easter in interesting in that it is a greater-double of the first class. The Sunday is often referred to as Quasimodo from the first words of its introit. Anciently on this day those who had been baptised on Holy Saturday took off their white robes which had been worn since the Oil of Catechumens and Chrism had been lavished upon them on Holy Saturday. The Gospel at Mattins and Mass is the account of the LORD appearing in to His disciples behind the shut doors of the room and the doubting of St. Thomas.
At Vespers yesterday the psalms of Saturday were sung under the single antiphon, Alleluia. Chapters and hymns return to the Office. The Paschaltide hymn Ad regias Agni dapes was sung. Its Doxology is sung at all hymns of Iambic metre: Deo Patri sit gloria, Et Filio qui a mortuis, Surrexit ac Paraclito, In sempiterna saecula. A commemoration was sung of St. Leo the Great. From this Office the dismissal, Benedicamus Domino, is sung without Alleluia.
At Mattins the invitatory Surrexit Dominus vere Alleluia continues to be sung. The Office hymn is Rex Sempiterne Caelitum. The psalms of each nocturn are sung under a single antiphon. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the Epistle of St. Paul to the Colossians. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from a sermon of St. Augustine on the Octave of Easter. In the third nocturn the homily is from the writings of St. Gregory on St. John's Gospel. At Lauds the Sunday psalms (Pss. 92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148) are sung under a single antiphon. The Office hymn is Aurora caelum purpurat. A commemoration is sung of St. Leo.
At Prime and the Hours the psalms are again sung under a single antiphon at each Hour.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, a commemoration is sung of St. Leo. The Creed is sung, the preface is of Paschaltide (In hoc potissimum).
At Vespers the psalms of Sunday are sung under a single antiphon. The Office hymn is again Ad regias Agni dapes. A commemoration is sung of St. Leo.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' at Vespers there is no commemoration of St. Leo. At the Hours the Paschaltide Doxology is not sung. Mattins is reduced to one nocturn of three lessons. There is no commemoration of St. Leo at Lauds, Mass or Vespers. At Mass there is a change to one word in the introit as 'rationabile' replaced 'rationabiles' in the 1953 edition of the Roman Missal.
Image: Jerome Nadal.
Tuesday 6 April 2010
The Office is essentially the same as the feast of Easter with some parts proper to the day. At Mattins the invitatory, antiphons and psalms (1, 2 & 3) are sung as yesterday. The versicle and responses are proper to the day: Surrexit Dominus vere, alleluai & Et apparuit Simoni, alleluia. The three lessons in the nocturn are taken from St. Ambrose's Book 10, Commentary on St. Luke. The responsories are proper. The Te Deum is sung to the solemn tone where possible. At Lauds the same antiphons and psalms are sung as yesterday and on Sunday. The Haec dies is sung as on the previous two days in place of the chapter and hymn. The antiphon on the Benedictus and the collect are proper to the day.
At Prime and the Hours festal psalmody is sung to the special Paschal Tone 2 chant.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Mass is proper. The Gloria is sung, the Creed is sung, the preface is of Easter, the Communicantes and Hanc igitur in the Canon are of Easter. Again Ite, missa est, alleluia, alleluia is the dismissal.
Vespers are as on the feast. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect are proper. At Compline the Dominical psalms are sung, the canticle is sung to the Paschal Tone 2.
Monday 5 April 2010
The Office is essentially the same as the feast of Easter with some parts proper to the day. At Mattins the invitatory, antiphons and psalms (1, 2 & 3) are sung as yesterday. The three lessons and responsories are proper. The Te Deum is sung to the solemn tone where possible. At Lauds the same antiphons and psalms are sung as yesterday. The Haec dies is sung as yesterday in place of the chapter and hymn. The antiphon on the Benedictus and the collect are proper to the day.
At Prime and the Hours festal psalmody is sung to the special Paschal Tone 2 chant.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Mass is proper. The Gloria is sung, the Creed is sung, the preface is of Easter, the Communicantes and Hanc igitur in the Canon are of Easter. Again Ite, missa est, alleluia, alleluia is the dismissal.
Vespers are as on the feast. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect are proper.
The celebration is so high-ranking that St. Vincent Ferrer is not celebrated this year (in the pre-1911 system his feast would have been transferred). His feast was mentioned yesterday of course in the Martyrology.
Nicholas is a friend of long standing of Rubricarius and the Saint Lawrence Press and produced a CD of choral music several years ago.
I recently heard his latest composition, the Missa brevis, and it reveals development and maturity of the composer's style. I found the Kyrie, unusual for settings of the Kyrie in being completely polyphonic, and the Gloria particularly pleasing. The whole Mass is rather delightful and deserves to be widely performed IMHO. The composition can be heard on MP3 files from the composer's website. Samples of the sheet music are also available for inspection on the site. Copies of the music may be bought by following the link on the website.
An unexpected highlight of the Triduum came not from the exhausting, though highly rewarding, round of services but from a perusal of the Internet after checking emails.
The photograph above is from a celebration of the authentic Roman rite for Good Friday in 1959 and shows Pope John XXIII venerating the Cross as it lies on a veil, upon a cushion, on the altar steps. Carlos Antonio Palad has written a characteristically interesting post on the Rorate Caeli blog describing how John XXIII celebrated the traditional rite for Good Friday in 1959, three years after it was supressed. Of course there were a significant number of other clergy who quietly ignored the novelties emanating from Rome at the time but for the pope to celebrate thus just a few months after his predecessor's death...
Back to these shores and some photographs, below, of another, almost, traditional celebration from the church of St. Magnus the Martyr, London via the Ex Fide blog.
The Cross laid out for veneration (c.f. with above). From earlier in the same service a photograph of a set of newly-made black planetis plicatis.
(Note that the single altar cloth should have been folded longitudinally so that it only covered the back of the mensa at that point in the service, but an excellent effort nonetheless.)
I may be wrong but I believe the last time black folded chasubles were used in this Realm was by the SSPX, in the days when they used the traditional rite, back in 1983 at their, then, newly acquired chapel in North London. The MC of that celebration later recounted to Rubricarius an amusing anecdote. The late Fr. Michael Crowdy was one of the sacred ministers. At the vesting press he paused in some astonishment on seeing the black folded chasuble laid out before him. Eventually he stammered "At the Oratory [Fr. Crowdy was a member of the Congregation of the London Oratory] we had a set of folded chasubles that were most singular in their ornamentation yet I see an almost identical vestment before me." After more of the same the celebrant, not known for his patience, snapped "For Heaven's sake! They are from the Oratory. Now put it on.."
Sunday 4 April 2010
The wonderful words above are sung at Prime today, and indeed were sung by Rubricarius this morning at the same, before the reading of the entry in the Martyrology for the following day.
Holy Pascha is a Double of the First Class with a privileged Octave of the first Order. Mattins was described in the previous post. The day's Office begins this morning with Prime. There is no hymn at the Hours during the entire Octave in the Roman rite. At Prime psalms 53 and the first two stanza of Ps. 118 are sung to a special form of Tone 2. Haec Dies is sung after the psalmody and then everything else is omitted up to the collect Domine Deus omnipotens. The Martyrology is then sung, starting with the verse indicated above. Then Santa Maria etc is sung, the collect Dirigere et sanctificare etc and the short lesson Si consurrexistis. Terce, and the other Little Hours, are even more simple in their structure. At Terce the usual stanzas of Ps. 118 are sung to the special Tone 2 form followed by Haec dies and the collect of the day.
Mass is sung after Terce. Instead of Asperges me the Paschatide Vidi aquam is sung today and all other Sundays in Paschaltide. In the great Mass of Easter, Resurrexi, the Gloria is sung, one collect is sung. Haec dies is sung as the Gradual. The sequence Victimae paschali laudes is sung after the Alleluia. The Creed is sung and Ite missa est alleluia, alleluia is sung as the dismissal.
Sext and None have exactly the same structure as Terce. At Vespers the antiphons sung at Lauds are sung with the usual Sunday psalms. Haec dies is sung in place of the chapter, hymn and versicle & response. The solemn tone is used for Benedicamus Domino, alleluia, alleluia.
At Compline the usual psalms are sung to Tone 8G without any preceding antiphon, followed by an antiphon consisting of Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. This is followed by the Nunc dimittis sung to the Paschal Tone 2, without antiphons. Haec dies is then sung followed by the collect Visita quaesumus etc and then, as yesterday the antiphon Regina coeli etc.
Saturday 3 April 2010
The high point of Holy Week in most medieval rites, and certainly in the Byzantine rite to this day, was the celebration of Paschal Mattins - Mattins of the Resurrection of the LORD.
In typical Northern European praxis, such as Sarum, the Lenten array was removed from the statues and images after Compline on Holy Saturday. Before the bells rang out in triumphant peals of joy to announce the Resurrection the clergy and people went to the Sepulchre and there the Tomb was opened and the Cross was 'raised' to the singing of the antiphon Christus resurgens. A ceremony of adoration of the Cross, just as on Good Friday morning, took place before a triumphal procession around the church. Rather interestingly examples of such liturgical orthopraxis continue in parts of Europe to this day despite the liturgical heteropraxis of the last century.
An example from contemporary Germany (Heilege Grab - the Holy Grave) may be found here . Of course, in modern times the idea of Easter Sepulchres hasevolved into the 'Easter Garden'. Last year a friend from Poland for sent me this synopsis of Polish Sepulchres. Of pariticular note is that the Polish editions of the liturgical books had 'depositio' ceremonies and the corresponding 'elevatio' ones printed as part of the rites until very recently (e.g. Cantionale Ecclesiasticum, Cracow, 1925 in my collection).
In the 'modern' Roman rite Paschal Mattins was generally noticeable by its lack of celebration. Westminster Cathedral, of course, in better days, celebrated Pontifical Paschal Mattins and Lauds at 5:30pm on Holy Saturday evening.
(This extract is from the timetable of Holy Week services for 1939. The full programme may be seen here.)
Compline is sung, at the normal time. On Holy Saturday the Office of Compline has some interesting variations. Compline begins with the usual Jube, domne, blessing, short lesson and confession. Converte nos, Deus, salutaris noster and its response are sung followed by Deus in adjutorium etc with Alleluia for the first time since Septuagesima. The psalms are sung, without an antiphon, to a special form of tone 2. The hymn, chapter and responsory are omitted and Vespere autem sabbati sung as a fragment antiphon to the Nunc dimittis. After the Canticle the antiphon is sung in full. After the usual collect, Visita quaesumus, the antiphon Regina Caeli is sung with its versicle and collect.
The church is decorated for the greatest of feasts. Six candlesticks are on the altar. Mattins begin with the solemn tone for Deus in adjutorium etc. The invitatory is Surrexit Dominus vere Alleluia and psalm 94 is sung to a lovely tone 6. Mattins consists of one nocturn of three psalms. There is no Office Hymn throughout the Octave (c.f. Monastic praxis). The first antiphon is Ego sum qui sum etc and sung with psalm 1. The second antiphon, Postulavi Patrem meum etc, is sung with psalm 2. The third antiphon, Ego dormivi etc, is sung with psalm 3. A versicle and its response are sung follwed by the absolution Exaudi etc. The first lesson has the Gospel fragment Mark 16: 1-7 and is followed by a homily of St. Gregory the Great. The two responsories Angelus Domini descendit and Cum transisset sabbatum are famous and intimately connected with the Quem quaeritis ceremonies and indeed the development of Western drama (vide the excellent book: Hardison, O.B., 'Christian Rite and Christian Drama in the Middle Ages', The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965).
The second lesson, Notandum vero nobis est is sung followed by the second responsory. During the second responsory the cantors and the celebrant don copes the principal one pre-intones the Te Deum. Six pluvialistae assist the Hebdomadarius where possible. The Te Deum is then sung and, where it is the custom the bells ring throughout.
Lauds follow immediately and have a series of beautiful antiphons: Angelus autem Domini, Et ecce terraemotus, Erat autem, Prae timore autem ejus and Respondens autem Angelus all taking up the theme of the Angels, earthquake and empty tomb. Psalms 92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148 are sung with these antiphons. The chapter, hymn, versicel and response are replaced by the Haec dies. If one has the opportunity listen to the setting by the English composer John Sheppard do so (Hyperion CDD22021). After Haec dies the antiphon Et valde mane is sung and then the Benedictus sung to a solemn tone 8. During the Benedictus the altar, the choir and people are censed in the normal manner. The antiphon is repeated and the collect of Easter, Deus, qui hodierna die sung. Benedicamus Domino, Alleluia, Alleluia and its response are followed by the solemn Regina Caeli, its versicle and collect.
In the Byzantine rite the Lucernarium rite from Vespers migrated to the beginning of Mattins about a millenium ago. Those interested in the details should consult Bertoniere, G., 'The Historical Development of the Easter Vigil and Related Services in the Greek Church', Orientalia Christiana Analecta 193, Rome, 1972. In the Byzantine Rite on Holy Saturday morning Vesperal Liturgy is celebrated with fifteen OT prophecies (or four in the Greek version) and a colour change from black to white before the Gospel. Seven of the prophecies and the Gospel are as used in the Old Roman Rite. Late in the evening of Holy Saturday Paschal Mattins begins. In the Slavonic version a triple candle is used to pass the Light of the Risen Christ and is used throughout Bright Week at the Office and Eucharistic Liturgy.
The above two photographs are taken from the website of St. Elisas Byzantine Catholic Church in Ontario. To all Eastern rite readers: Khristos Voskresie!
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Compline and Mattins have been axed, perhaps with regards to Mattins, the most pernicious and shameful cut of all.
Missale Romanum, rubric pro loco for Holy Saturday.
Holy Saturday is a double of the first class. On Holy Saturday morning the altar is dressed and vested as in the photograph above. A violet antependium is placed over a white one in such a manner that it may easily be removed later. Six candles of bleached wax remain unlit for the Hours.
The Hours are chanted as for the previous two days with the exception that choir reverences are omitted because of the unveiled Cross on the altar to which all reverence with a genuflection. As at Tenebrae yesterday evening Propter quod et Deus etc is added to Christus factus est.
After None is completed (or, in Pontifical functions celebrated by the Ordinary after Sext when the New Fire is blessed) the ministers of the Mass go to the sacristy and vest (celebrant in violet stole and cope; the deacon and subdeacon in violet folded chasubles). Meanwhile a fire, struck from flint as the rubric above says, is kindled and charcoal placed on it for liturgical use. A procession goes from the sacristy to the place where the new fire is to be blessed. The procession is headed by three acolytes. In the centre the first acolyte carries the lustral water container and sprinkler. To his left is the second acolyte bearing the grains of incense on a salver. The thurifer, with an empty thurible, walks to the right of the first acolyte. Folling is the subdeacon carrying the Processional Cross, then the choir and lastly the celebrant and deacon. At the new fire all uncover and the subdeacon stands on the other side of the fire, opposite the celebrant. The celebrant then sings three collects of blessing of the fire and one for the grains of incense. The charcoal is put in the thurible and incense blessed as usual. The deacon then changes from a violet folded chasuble for a white dalmatic. (When the celebrant is not assisted by deacon and subdeacon the celebrant himself exchanges his violet cope for a white dalmatic as in the photograph below of Dr. Glover). Either the deacon or the celebrant takes a reed (bamboo cane = Arundinaria) with a triple candle with its branches arranged 'triangulo distinctis'. A procession is formed with acolytes bearing the five grains of incense to be inserted into the Paschal Candle and thurible followed by the subdeacon carrying the cross, followed by the choir, then the deacon with the reed and finally the celebrant.
[Note. The above is a photograph of a stained glass window in Kesgrave church showing the Procession into church on Holy Saturday morning. The subdeacon carrying the cross is wearing a folded chasuble and the deacon, in white dalmatic, the triple candle atop the reed followed by the celebrant. I am grateful to Mr. Alan Robinson for showing me this wonderful image.]
The procession pauses three times as it enters the church progressing towards the altar. Each time one of the wicks of the candle being lit from a taper bearing the new fire, the deacon (or celebrant) proclaims Lumen Christi and the choir responds Deo gratias, each time on a higher note.
When the procession reaches the altar due reverences are made and the deacon (who passes the reed to an acolyte) takes the Evangeliarium containing the Exsultet from the mensa and receives a blessing from the celebrant as when about to proclaim the Gospel at Mass. The deacon then goes with the lesser ministers to the Gospel side of choir where the book is placed on a lectern and censed. The deacon then sings the Exsultet pausing to insert the grains of incense into the Paschal Candle after the words curvat imperia. He then continues 'In hujus igitur noctis gratia, suscipe, sancte Pater, incensi hujus sacrificium vespertinum..' When he reaches 'rutilans ignis accendit' he again pauses and lights the Paschal Candle with one of the branches of triple candle. When the words 'apis mater eduxit' are sung an acolyte takes the fire from the triple candle and lights the lamps in the church. After the Exsultet the deacon takes off the white dalmatic and exchanges it for a violet stole, maniple and folded chasuble. The celebrant removes his cope and puts on a violet maniple and chasuble. The ministers then go to the altar and to the Epistle corner as at the introit of Mass.
The celebrant reads the twelve prophecies (these derive from the ancient Jerusalem practice c.f. Talley). In the middle of choir lectors chant each prophecy. After each (except the twelfth) the celebrant sings Oremus, the deacon Flectamus genua and the subdeacon Levate. Tracts follow the fourth, eighth and eleventh prophecy. The twelfth prophecy may be sung to one of several special tones (pace Signor Martinucci).
The prophecies are:
1) Genesis 1: 1-31; 2: 1-2
2) Genesis 5; 6; 7 & 8
3) Genesis 22: 1-19
4) Exodus 14: 24-31; 15
5) Isaiah 54: 17; 55: 1-11
6) Baruch 3: 9-38
7) Ezechiel 37: 1-14
8) Isaiah 4: 1-6
9) Exodus 12: 1-11
10)Jonah 3: 1-10
11)Deuteronomy 31: 22-30
12)Daniel 3: 1-24
After the twelfth prophecy, if the church has a font, the celebrant again dons a violet cope and a procession is formed to the Baptistery whilst Sicut cervus is sung. In the Baptistery the font is hallowed by the celebrant singing a preface of blessing culminating in the Paschal Candle being plunged into the waters of the font three times and Chrism being infused into the waters. Here baptisms are carried out. Anciently this liturgy was when adults were baptised and the prophecies were the last catechumenal address.
As the ministers leave the Baptistery two cantors kneeling in choir start the Litany of the Saints. As in all Processional Litanies the invocations are doubled i.e. the invocation and petition is sung by the cantors and repeated by the choir. On their return to the sanctuary the celebrant and ministers remove their cope and chasubles and prostrate before the altar. At Peccatores, te rogamus audi nos they rise and leave the sanctuary to vest for Mass whilst the Litany continues. Meanwhile acolytes remove the violet altar frontal (and violet humeral veil over the credence etc), light the altar candles and prepare the altar for Mass.
The celebrant, deacon and subdeacon return to choir, now vested in white, as the choir sings the Kyrie. The celebrant says Judica me etc and the altar is then censed as at the beginning of any High Mass. At the Gloria in excelsis the bells are rung as on Maundy Thursday. Before the Gradual the celebrant sings Alleluia solemnly three times. At the Gospel the acolytes carry do not carry candles. There is no Creed or Offertory chant.
In the Paschal preface the clause in hac potissimum nocte is sung. The Communicantes and Hanc igitur are proper. The Agnus Dei is not sung and there is no Pax. Instead of a communion antiphon Alleluia is sung three times as an antiphon to Psalm 116. This has the Doxology and the Alleluia is repeated. The celebrant then intones the antiphon Vespere autem sabbati which the choir continues. The Magnificat is then sung and the altar, choir and people censed. After the repitition of the antiphon the celebrant sings the Post-communion and collect for Vespers Spiritum nobis. Mass then ends as usual the dismissal being Ite, missa est, alleluia, alleluia.
A cardinal celebrant of Holy Saturday enters church weaing a violet cappa magna but leaves it wearing a red one.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the 'Paschal Vigil' is the third version of the new order celebrated in the late evening of Holy Saturday. In 1951 the 'Vigil' was 'restored' ad experimentum. The first version had Mattins and Lauds in the morning of Holy Saturday, with the omission of the Miserere and a new collect, Concede. A new Vespers was fabricated using the Vespers for the preceeding two days with a new first antiphon and antiphon on the Magnificat. Compline was said as on Good Friday evening but without Christus factus est but with the collect Visita. For the Vigil the ministers still wore folded chasubles. There is a single collect of blessing the fire and the grains of incense are stuck into the Paschal candle outside of the church. The collects Domine Deus pater etc and Domine sancte, Pater omnimpotens etc were suppressed. Veniat, quesumus was used to bless the candle (with the word cereum added) and it, not the reed with a triple candle (again suppressed), was carried into the church by the deacon (now in white dalmatic). The candle was stuck in the middle of the choir on a temporary stand and there incensed and had the Exsultet (without the actions it mentions being carried out) sung to it in a most curious manner. Four prophecies were then chanted to the candle in the middle of the choir whilst the ministers remained at the sedilia listening to them. From the former series of prophecies:
1) Genesis 1: 1-31; 2: 1-2 remained;
2) Genesis 5; 6; 7 & 8 was suppressed;
3) Genesis 22: 1-19 was suppressed;
4) Exodus 14: 24-31; 15 remained;
5) Isaiah 54: 17; 55: 1-11 was suppressed;
6) Baruch 3: 9-38 was suppressed;
7) Ezechiel 37: 1-14 was suppressed;
8) Isaiah 4: 1-6 remained (with the omission of its first verse in later forms);
9) Exodus 12: 1-11 was suppressed;
10)Jonah 3: 1-10 was suppressed;
11)Deuteronomy 31: 22-30 remained;
12)Daniel 3: 1-24 was suppressed.
The Litany (no longer duplicated) was sung as far as Omnes Sancti et Sanctae then interrupted and in the middle of choir before the candle and in the sight of the people a container of water was blessed in the sanctuary, as the font in the Baptistery had been in the traditional rite. Then in Latin (or where forms in the Rituale had been authorised in the vernacular) the people were invited to renew their baptismal promises. Then the Litany was resumed and after that Mass was celebrated. At the Mass Judica and the preparatory prayers were omitted, Vespere autem sabbati became the communion verse, Spiritum nobis the postcommunion and the last Gospel was omitted. These changes were, of course, later extended to the entire liturgical year.
The second version of the 'Vigil' came out of the committee room onto the presses in 1952. Compline on Holy Saturday was omitted as were Mattins and Lauds of Easter where the 'Vigil', still optional, was celebrated. The collect Veniat had the word intende substituted for accende. At the collects following the prophecies the deacon, no longer the subdeacon, chanted Levate. The third prophecy (Isiah 4: 1-6) was shortened by losing its first verse. Sicut cervus returned to this version and was sung as the bucket of water was carried to the font after its blessing. In the invitation to renew baptismal promises the word celebrans replaced expectans (the Resurrection). Vernacular forms were permitted by the local bishop for the renewal of baptismal promises. At the Mass the communion verse goes and is replaced by Alleluia and Ps. 116 treated as a psalm of Lauds (!). Et valde mane was the antiphon on the Benedictus with Spiritum nobis as the collect. The second form of the Vigil also suppressed the Vigil of Pentecost ceremonies where it had been celebrated, no doubt as the Vigil of Pentecost would remind people too much of the old rite.
The third form of the 'Vigil' came with the 'restoration' of the rest of Holy Week in1956. Folded chasubles disappear from Holy Week altogether and Ps. 150 was substituted for Ps.116. The text for Ps. 150 and the Benedictus are that featured in the 1945 'Bea' translation of the Psalterium (in the Vatican typical edition at least).
The above two photographs are of the 1962 'Paschal Vigil' celebrated by the FSSP in Denton. The first picture shows the ministers sat at the sedilia staring at a lector who is singing a prophecy to the Paschal Candle on its 'temporary stand' in medio chori. In the second picture the celebrant is walking around the Paschal Candle censing it (do they do this with maypoles one wonders?) prior to the renovation of baptismal promises. The image below is from J.B.O'Connell's 'The Cermonies of Holy Week', 1960 and shows the arrangement in the sanctuary for the blessing of the baptismal bucket, versus populum.
On the subject of the new Holy Week rites to quote the good Dr. Glover:
"There is that ludicrous business of changing into violet vestments in the middle of Good Friday and giving everyone Communion with the celebrant not even going to collect the Blessed Sacrament. One is supposed to wait until 3.00pm when Our Lord's Passion was already over. Holy Saturday is a miserable business, with no triple-branched candle, the Exsultet sung straight through without doing the things mentioned at various points in the text, the prophecies reduced to four, that horrible renewal of baptismal promises and so on. The whole thing gets turned into a sort of Midnight Mass but there is not the slightest reason for thinking the Resurrection happened at midnight, as the third day started at sunset on Saturday."
Rev. Dr. T.C.G. Glover, JCD - letter to the blogger 15th May 1990
Friday 2 April 2010
Tenebrae for Holy Saturday takes place in the late afternoon or evening of Good Friday.
At the usual time Compline is recited on a monotone, as the Little Hours this morning and yeseterday. Its structure is exactly the same as yesterday. After the Canticle Christus factus est...Mortem autem crucis (only) is said, the Miserere and Respice follow as before.
The choir altar remains as it was after Vespers this morning with six candlesticks and altar Cross now unveiled. Choir reverences are omitted until after None tomorrow. All reverence the Cross with a genuflection.
At Mattins the first antiphon is In pace in idipsum. The psalms are strictly proper, in the first nocturn Pss. 4, 14 & 15. After the last verse of each psalm a candle is exstinguished on the hearse. The Lamentations of Jeremy form the first nocturn lessons with the Prayer of Jeremy as third lesson. There is a splendid and beautiful ad libitum tone for the latter. In the second nocturn Pss. 23, 26 & 29 are sung. The second nocturn lessons are again from St. Augustine on the psalms. In the third nocturn Pss. 53, 75 & 87 are sung. the lessons are again from St. Paul to the Hebrews. The theme of the service is Christ in the Tomb.
Lauds follow immediately from Mattins with the first antiphon O mors ero mors etc. Psalms 50, 91, 63, Ego dixi and 150 are sung. The antiphon on the Benedictus is Mulieres sedentes etc, sung to the same tone as the previous two nights and doubled. Exactly the same ceremonies take place as the previous two nights. When the Christus factus est is sung Propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum, dedit illi nomen, quod est super omne nomen is added.
This is the shortest Tenebrae (too short?) and has a wonderful sense of peace about it.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Tenebrae is celebrated tomorrow morning. Four candlesticks remain on the altar from the 'Solemn Liturgical Action' of Good Friday afternoon.
On Good Friday morning the altar is bare except for six candlesticks bearing candles of unbleached wax and the altar Cross veiled in black (preferably) or violet.
The Little Hours are chanted exactly as yesterday morning, the only difference being that Mortem autem crucis is added to Christus factus est and the altar candles are not lit.
After None the Hebdomadarius and ministers enter choir for the 'Mass of the Pre-Sanctified'. The celebrant wears black stole, maniple and chasuble; the deacon black stole, maniple and folded chasuble; and, the subdeacon black maniple and folded chasuble. The ministers prostrate before the altar (for the time of a Miserere according to the better authors).
(The photograph above, and others below, are from Marc Coleman's fine collection of photographs of magnificent services at St. Clement's Church, Philadelphia used with kind permission of the Rector.)
During this prostration the acolytes spread a single cloth on the altar mensa folded longitudinally back on itself so that at first it does not cover the front part of the mensa. The missal is placed at the Epistle corner. The celebrant and ministers rise and the celebrant kisses the altar and goes to the Epistle corner where he reads a prophecy from Osee whilst this is chanted by a lector in choir. This is followed by a Tract. After the Tract the celebrant, at the altar, chants Oremus, the deacon Flectamus genua and the subdeacon Levate.
The celebrant then sings the collect Deus, a quo et Judas. Then, just as at High Mass, the subdeacon removes his folded chasuble and sings an 'Epistle' whilst the celebrant reads it at the altar. A second Tract is then sung. This is followed by the Passion of St. John. This is sung as on Palm Sunday and Tuesday and Wednesday by three Deacons of the Passion. Today they wear black stoles and use uncovered lecterns.
(The above photograph is of the beginning of the Passion according to St. John from the Chronista volume from a set of Passion Books in this blogger's collection printed in Rome, 1860. The rather beautiful chant is ascribed to Palestrina and Guidetti. It is slightly more difficult to sing than the more familiar 'modern' form but well worth the effort.)
Towards the end of the Passion the deacon takes off his chasuble and folds it over his shoulder or dons the 'broad stole'. The ceremonies for the Gospel take place as at High Mass except today no blessing is asked, there is no incense and the acolytes do not carry lights. One of the better restorations of the early twentieth century was an ancient tone for the Gospels of the Passions.
This rather sublime music and haunting music was suppressed, like so much else, in the 'restoration' of 1956. After the Gospel the ministers go to the Epistle corner and there the Solemn Prayers are sung, the ministers behind the celebrant as at a normal High Mass.
Note the deacon above wearing the 'broad stole'.
After Oremus sung by the celebrant the deacon chants Flectamus genua and the subdeacon Levate. After the series of prayers the ministers return to the sedilia where the celebrant and subdeacon remove their chausbles. Meanwhile a violet carpet is laid from the altar steps and a cushion edged with gold and covered by a veil is laid to receive the Cross.
The celebrant and subdeacon stand before the Epislte side of the altar, in plano, facing the people. The deacon takes the altar Cross and brings it to the celebrant. The celebrant unveils the upper portion of the Cross and sings Ecce lignum crucis. The choir responds Venite adoremus and kneels. This is repeated twice until the whole Cross is unveiled and the celebrant is on the footpace at the centre of the altar.
The celebrant then carries the Cross to the cushion, then genuflects and returns to the sedilia where he is met by the ministers. The minsisters then take off their maniples and shoes. Meanwhile all other crosses are unveiled, but not the other images. Veneration of the Cross follows with the celebrant making three prostrations before the Cross as he approaches it, then kissing the Cross, genuflecting and returning to his place.
At the sedilia the celebrant resumes his shoes, maniple and chasuble. The deacon and subdeacon then make their Veneration followed by the choir and people. After the unveiling of the Cross it is genuflected to by all in actu functionis and Choir reverences cease until None tomorrow. At the sedilia the ministers read the 'Reproaches' with the celebrant whilst they are sung by the choir. Of note is the use of the Greek Trisagion interolated with Popule meus. The Crucem tuam and then Crux fidelis interpolated with Pange, lingua, gloriosi Lauream. Towards the end of the Veneration acolytes light the altar candles and the candles they will carry. At the end of the Veneration the celebrant gives the Cross to the kneeling deacon who then returns it to the altar.
A procession is then formed and goes to the altar of repose where two thuribles have been prepared. The deacon opens the capsula and incense is put on the thuribles but not blessed. The reserved Sacrament is censed kneeling. The celebrant then puts on the humeral veil and is given the Sacrament by the deacon.
The party then processes back to the choir altar and the superb Vexilla regis is sung. Where resources permit a second subdeacon, in black folded chasuble carries the Processional Cross. In Cathedral and Collegiate Churches eight canons, in black copes, each hold a shaft of the large canopy held over the Sacrament. There is something very striking about the white humeral veil over the black chasuble as can be seen (just about) below:
At the choir altar the deacon takes the chalice from the celebrant and places it on the altar and unties the ribbon. More incense is put on and the Sacrament censed again the ministers kneel. The ministers go up to the altar the Host is slipped onto the paten. Acolytes bring up cruets although water is not blessed and the chalice made as at High Mass. The 'gifts' are then censed as at High Mass and the celebrant washes his hands as at Mass coram Sanctissimo. The celebrant then comes to the centre and says the prayer In spiritu humilitatis then turning to the Gospel side to say Orate, fratres turning back without making a circle. No answer is made.
The celebrant then sings the Pater noster in the ferial tone followed by Libera nos. The celebrant then slips the paten under the Host. The Host is then elevated in his right hand whilst the left holds the paten. The Host is then held over the chalice and broken as at Mass. the fraction being placed in the cup. There is neither Pax nor Agnus Dei. The celebrant says Perceptio Corporis tuis, Panem caelestem, Domine non sum dignus and Corpus Domini before consuming the Host and contents of the Chalice. The ablutions follow and the celebrant says Quod ore the ministers reverence the altar and return, in silence, to the sacristy.
Vespers are now sung without chant. The antiphons are the same as yesterday for the psalms but the antiphon on the Magnificat is Cum accepisset acetum. After the repitition of the antiphon Christus factus est, Pater, Miserere and Respice. After Vespers the candles are exstinguished.
The 'liturgical books of 1962' are particularly ghastly today. The altar has nothing at all on it, no candlesticks or Cross. The same changes to the Office are made as posted yesterday. For the 'Solemn Afternoon Liturgical Action' the ministers enter in albs and stoles only, no maniple or chasubles or dalmatics. The photographs below are from the FSSP celebration in Reading last year from Dr. Joseph Shaw's collection.
The Gospel ceremony is lost. Much of the service takes place at the sedilia (a forerunner of the cult of the 'chair'). For the Solemn Collects the celebrant puts on a black cope and stands at the middle of the altar assisted by ministers in dalmatic and tunicle. Of course traditionally the collects were always sung at the Epistle corner.
For the Veneration the Cross is brought from the sacristy by the deacon. There are no longer prostrations or the 'Creeping to the Cross' but three simple genuflections from the ministers, one by everyone else. The minister listen to the reproaches. For the Communion service the ministers change from their black vestments and put on violet chausble, dalmatic and tunicle. The deacon brings the reserved sacrament back from the Altar of Repose. The singing of the Vexilla regis is suppressed (except when John XXIII insisted on having it sung) and three new antiphons are sung.
The Mass of the Pre-Sanctified is suppressed. At the altar the celebrant sing the invitation Oremus. Praeceptis salutaribus monitietc and in response the entire congregation recites, not sings, the Pater noster. The celebrant says Perceptio, Domine non sum dignus and Corpus Domini and communcates himself. Meanwhile the deacon sings the Confiteor (the only day allowed by the 1962 books but how the 62ists break that rubric...) and then after the absolutions the celebrant communicates everyone else.
Three prayers are then sung from the middle of the altar. Vespers are omitted entirely.
Dr. Glover was once asked why he didn't celebrate the Pacelli novelties. His answer was pure Dr. Glover at his very best: "I would rather get drunk in a brothel than celebrate that crap."
In many other Latin rites in the past, and indeed in some places in the world such as Poland to this day, the Cross was buried in the 'Easter Sepulchre' until it raising at Paschal Mattins. The question of these rites of 'depositio' and corresponding 'elevatio' is complex and will be discussed at at later date. Post Dr. Glover's retirement an 'Easter Sepulchre' was created at Durham:
[The Cross is resting on a veil and cushion as prescribed in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum Lib. II, Cap. XXV, 3 & 24 for the Veneration. After Vespers the Cross has been carried in procession and ritually 'entombed' in the Sepulchre following local custom, albeit with a hiatus in praxis of a few centuries! Following the older practice only the Cross is entombed, the single reserved Host was consumed by the celebrant that morning. Durham, 1997]
Thursday 1 April 2010
At the usual time Compline is recited on a monotone, as the Little Hours this morning. Again its form is absolute simplicity beginning with the Confiteor and the usual psalms, Nunc dimittis and then Christus factus est, Miserere and Respice as before. Note that only Christus factus est pro nobis obediens usque ad mortem is said at Compline, as Compline still is part of Mandy Thursday.
Tenebrae for Good Friday follows Compline, or after a short gap. In practice Compline can be chanted in the time it takes to light the altar candles and candles on the Tenebrae hearse. The service is structurally the same as that sung for Maundy Thursday and the differences will be noted.
The choir altar is as it was after stripping this morning with six candlesticks and altar Cross veiled now in black (preferably) or violet. At Mattins the first antiphon is Astiterunt reges. The psalms are strictly proper: in the first nocturn Pss. 2, 21 & 26; in the second nocturn Pss. 37, 39 & 53; and, in the third nocturn Pss. 58, 87 & 93. After the last verse of each psalm a candle is exstinguished on the hearse. The Lamentations of Jeremy form the first nocturn lessons. The second nocturn lessons are again from St. Augustine on the psalms and in the third nocturn from St. Paul to the Hebrews.
Lauds follow from Mattins beginning with the antiphon Proprio Filio suo etc. Psalms 50, 142, 84, Domine audivi auditionem & 147. The antiphon on the Benedictus is Posuerunt super caput ejus etc, sung to the same tone as last night and doubled. Exactly the same ceremonies take place as last night. When the Christus factus est is sung Mortem autem crucis is added.
After Tenebrae in Cathedral and larger churches the Ceremonial Washing of the Altars takes place. The bare mensae ar ewashed with a mixture of water and wine and the surface scoured with brushes and dried with towels whilst Diviserunt and psalm 21 is monotoned. After this service Christus factus est ... Mortem autem crucis is added.
In the 1962 liturgical books 'Tenebrae', or should it be called 'Lucernariae', celebrated tomorrow morning, runs into the problem that the choir altar has no candles upon it to extinguish during the Benedictus! In practice many 1962ists cheat and add candlesticks for their service.
In the afternoon the Mandatum ceremony takes place. Dr. Glover never celebrated this so there are no photographs from Durham. However, the above is taken from Herbert Thurston's 'Lent and Holy Week'. The drawing shows the pope washing the feet of thirteen poor men on Mandy Thursday. (If I am in breach of copyright I apologise in advance as none is intended and will remove the photograph of the plate on request.)
A procession to a suitable place is made with the celebrant vested in violet stole and cope assisted by a deacon in white stole, maniple and dalmatic, and subdeacon in white tunicle and maniple. The ministers make the usual reverences to the altar and the deacon lays the Evangeliarium on the mensa. All follows exactly as for the Gospel at High Mass and the same Gospel that was sung this morning is again proclaimed.
After the Gospel the celebrant removes the violet cope and puts on an apron. The ministers remove their maniples. Meanwhile thirteen men seated on benches remove their shoes and socks. Acolytes take a basin, ewer, towels and a plate bearing coins to the first man. The celebrant kneels before the man and water is poured over his right foot, held by the subdeacon. The deacon passes a towel to the celebrant (with the usual oscula) and the celebrant dries the man's foot and kisses it. He then gives the man a coin who takes it and kisses the celebrant's hand. This process is repeated for all thirteen men.
During this the choir sings the antiphon Mandatum novum (the text giving Mandy Thursday its English name). Eight other antiphons are provided including the famous Ubi caritas. After the last man's foot is washed the celebrant and ministers return to the credence where the celebrant washes his hands and resumes the violet cope. They go to the Epistle corner and there the celebrant intones Pater noster (continued in silence), some versicles and the collect Adesto. All then return to the sacristy.
The Roman authors mention that the feet of thirteen poor men are washed and that after the service the men are given a good dinner, new clothes and some money. This admirable tradition of course continues with Our Sovereign Lady, Her Majesty The Queen, distributing the Royal Maundy Money. This Mandy Thursday Her Majesty will distribute the Maundy Money to 84 men and 84 women, the number determined by The Queen's age, at Derby Cathedral. Some details of the service may be found here. I understand that although The Queen does not wash any feet the Lord Almoner still wears an ceremonial apron as a vestigial reminder of when feet were washed.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Mandatum generally takes place after the Gospel of the novel evening Mass. The feet of twelve men, not thirteen are washed. The antiphon Benedicta sit sancta Trinitas is omitted. After the Washing of the feet the celebrant no longer returns to the Missal at the Epistle corner for the versicles and prayer Adesto but sings them before the altar in plano.
The English name for today, Mandy Thursday (the spelling with a 'u' is relatively modern) derives from one of the key features of the day, the Mandatum, or Washing of Feet. Mandy Thursday is rather composite in its structure with many elements coming together before the celebration of the LORD's Pascha. Mnndy Thursday is a double of the first class.
Anciently Mandy Thursday was the day when the public penitents, previously expelled from the church on Ash Wednesday, were reconciled. When there were multiple Masses this day the first was for the reconciliation of the penitents. The rite for reconciliation, in some ways a mirror image of the rite of expulsion in that the penitents were led back into church, can still be found in the Pontificale. Interesingly, this rite clearly, in somewhat reduced forms, continued until modern times. Purusing an Ordo for 1943 for the Diocese of Angers part of the entry for Mandy Thursday reads "In Ecclesia Cath. Post Nonam, Preces Quadragesimales seu absolutionis."
The photograph above was taken about 1993 and is of Dr. Glover's former chapel at Sacriston, Durham. The colour balance of the photograph has not worked to well, the antependium and veils were violet.
In the morning the Hours of Prime, Terce, Sext and None are chanted in aggregation. The choir altar is vested as it was on yesterday evening for Tenebrae with violet antependium, lighted candles of unbleached wax and a violet veil on the Cross. The Little Hours take on a special and much simplified form during the Triduum in the Roman rite. The text for the Little Hours of the Triduum may be downloaded here.
The choir enters the sanctuary, seniores ante inferiores, and kneels for Aperi, Domini then rises whilst a Pater noster, Ave Maria and Credo are said on the lips. The usual start of the Hours is omitted, as are antiphons, and Prime begins with the first verse of Psalm 53, Deus, in nomine tuo salvum me fac being intoned by the duty side cantor. The choir Signs itself at the opening words. The psalms are monotoned the verses taken by alternate sides of choir. Gloria Patri is not sung or said during the Triduum. After the last verse of Ps. 53 the choir continues, without break or intonation, with the first stanza of Ps. 118, Beati immaculati, and then with the second stanza Retribue. At the last verse a fall of a tone is made on the last syllable.
The choir kneels and Christus factus est recited as far as ad mortem. A Pater noster is then said by all and the Miserere monotoned in a subdued voice. Other than polyphonic settings that may be sung at Tenebrae the Miserere is never sung at the other Hours of the Triduum but always chanted as above. During the last verse of the Miserere again a fall of a tone is made on the last syllable. The Hebdomadarius then montones the collect Respice, falling a tone at the last syllable of tormentum and then the conclusion is said in silence.
The choir rises and says a Pater noster and Ave Maria on their lips. Terce then proceeds as Prime had done the choir Signing at Legem pone mihi. A fall of a tone is made at the end of the third stanza of Ps. 118 and everything repeated as at Prime: Christus factus est, Pater noster, Miserere and collect Respice. The same is adopted for Sext and None.
After None the choir rises and the Hebdomadarius and ministers of Mass go to the sacristy to vest. Meanwhile the choir altar is prepared for Mass. The candles are changed for ones of bleached wax, a white antependium is laid over the violet one and a white veil placed over the altar Cross.
Mass is celebrated in white vestments. Today two Hosts are consecrated and thus placed on the paten before Mass. The organ may be played to the end of the Gloria in excelsis. The psalm Judica me is not said as the Mass is de Tempore. Gloria Patri is not sung at the introit, Nos autem, or at any of the other chants. As the Gloria in excelsis is sung may be rung. There is one collect. The Credo is sung. The preface is of the Cross, the Communicantes, Hanc igitur and Qui pridie are all proper in the Canon. The Agnus Dei is sung as usual but the Pax is not given.
When the celebrant has communicated he takes the second Host and places it in a second chalice. The deacon then covers this chalice with a pall then an upside down paten over which is placed a white silk veil which is then secured with a ribbon tied around the stem of the chalice. (If the celebrant is without a deacon the chalice is veiled but the ribbon not tied at this point as tying a ribbon with ones thumb and digit held together is not practical. In this case the tying takes place after the ablutions). Mass now proceeds following the rules coram Sanctissimo - basically no one turns their back to the Sacrament. Holy Communion is distibuted as normal following the Confiteor etc.
After the distribution of Communion Mass continues, Ite, missa est is the dismissal sung by the deacon and the blessing and last Gospel follow their normal course - with the coram Santissimo changes in ceremonial. The ministers reverence the altar at the end of Mass and go to the sedilia where they remove their maniples and the celebrant dons a white cope. The ministers return to the altar, prostrate and kneel on the lowest step. Incense is put on two thuribles but not blessed. The reserved Sacrament is censed. The celebrant is then given a white humeral veil and the deacon presents him with the veiled chalice. A procession is made to the altar of repose whilst Pange, lingua, gloriosi Corporis is sung. At the altar of repose a further censing takes place and the veiled chalice is placed inside the capsula.
After due reverence to the Sacrament the ministers of the Mass return to the sacristy to unvest. However, the rest of the choir return to the choir altar. During the procession and ceremonies at the altar of repose the white veil is removed from the altar Cross, the white frontal removed and the candles exchanged for ones of lighted unbleached wax.
Vespers are begun at once and are again chanted to a monotone or sung where this is the custom. Vespers does have antiphons for today and tomorrow. After a Pater noster and Ave Maria the service starts with the first antiphon, Calicem salutaris. As this is intoned, the choir Signs itself. The antiphon is doubled and the psalm follows. If Vespers are not sung a drop of a tone is made at the end of the last verse of each psalm before the repitition of the antiphon. The psalms of Vespers today, and tomorrow, are Pss. 115, 119, 139, 140 & 141. After the last antiphon has been repeated Christus factus est etc is chanted to a monotone as at the Little Hours. During the Miserere a second priest in white stole removes the Sacrament from the tabernacle (if present) and takes it to the place - not the altar of repose - where it will be reserved until Holy Saturday. This Sacrament is used for sick calls during the Triduum and is not adored.
[Note: In Cathedral churches the Holy Oils are consecrated during the Mass. Constraints of time and space preclude writing about this now. However, when there was evidence of several Masses on Maundy Thursday in Rome (vide: Gelasian Sacramentary) the Host was reserved at the Mass the pope confected the Chrism, in the morning.]
After Vespers the ministers of Mass return vested in violet stoles. The celebrant of the Mass monotones the antiphon Diviserunt sibi which the choir continues followed by Psalm 21. The choir altar (and then other altars if present) are then stripped of cloths, frontal etc leaving only the veiled Cross and candlesticks. The candles and sanctuary lamp are exstinguished. Lustral water is removed from the entrances to the church. The brethren retire for their collation.
The 'stripped' altar in the Union Debating Chamber appears below. As it consisted of a tressle table supported by chairs it was deemed better to have a base covering of black stuff. The compilator emeritus of the Ordo, the esteemed Mr. John Tyson, being a purist was most upset and said he would prefer to see a pile of chairs than any semblance of vesting!
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' 'Tenebrae' so-called takes place in the morning outside Cathedral churches. The Miserere is omitted from the end of all the Hours. In Cathedrals a Chrism Mass takes place. Some of the texts are pure committe work innovations. Vespers are omitted. A mandatory evening Mass takes place where the tabernacle is empty to begin with. The Creed is omitted. Only one Host is consecrated and a ciborium for Communion today and tomorrow. After the Gospel the Mandatum may take place and the feet of twelve men are washed, the celebrant versus populum for the collect. In the Mass the third petition of Agnus Dei is miserere nobis and the prayer Domine, Jesu Christi omitted. The Confiteor and absolution before Communion is suppressed for the first time, later of course abrogated for throughout the whole year, Benedicamus Domino replaces Ite, missa est, there is no blessing and the last Gospel omitted. Watching at the altar of repose ceases at midnight.
1) Older Office books often had a fly sheet with Christus factus est, Miserere etc that could be moved through the book as required and save flicking through pages for those who do not know the texts from memory causing an unnecessary and annoying hiatus as members of the choir find the correct page. If unavailable in original form please download a copy from here.
2) When setting up the sanctuary for the Triduum it will be easier to veil the altar Cross first in a black veil then cover this with a violet one. Lastly ensure the white veil is of the right proportions to cover the violet one and can easily be added and removed.
3) My experience is that the ringing of bells at the Gloria today and on Holy Saturday is most effective if a moderate bell is rung rhythmically through all the Gloria rather than a cacophony of different bells ringing in competition with each other.