Sunday, 15 May 2022

The third week of May

Fourth Sunday after Pascha


The fourth Sunday after Pascha is of semi-double rite and its liturgical colour is white. The Gospel pericopes are from the sixteenth chapter of St. John's Gospel where the LORD talks of His ascending to Heaven and the coming of the Paraclete.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the psalms of Saturday were sung under the single antiphon, Alleluia. The Office hymn was Ad regias Agni dapes. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration was of St. John Baptist de La Salle. The Paschal Commemoration of the Cross was omitted due to the double feast. At Compline Te lucis was sung with the Paschaltide Doxology and the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is Surrexit Dominus and the Office hymn, Rex sempiterne as on previous Sundays of Paschaltide. In the first nocturn the lessons are the Incipit of the Epistle of St. James. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the Treatise of St. Cyprian on the boon of patience. In the third nocturn the homily is from St. Augustine. The Te Deum is sung. At Lauds the Sunday psalms (92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148) are sung under a single antiphon, Alleluia. The Office hymn is Aurora caelum purpurat. After the collect of the Sunday a commemorations is sung of St. John Baptist de La Salle. The Paschal Commemoration of the Cross is omitted due to the occurring double feast.

At the Hours the hymns have the Paschaltide Doxology, the psalms are sung under a single antiphon consisting of a triple Alleluia. At Prime the Dominical psalms are sung (Pss. 117, 118(i) & 118(ii). The Dominical preces are omitted.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of St. John Baptist de La Salle. Today there is no third collect. The Creed is sung and the preface is of Paschaltide.

At Vespers the Dominical psalms (109, 110, 111, 112 & 113) are sung under the single antiphon, Alleluia. The Office hymn is Ad regias Agni dapes. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations are sung of the following Office of St. Ubald and of St. John Baptist de La Salle. The Paschal Commemoration of the Cross is omitted due to the occurring double feasts and the Dominical preces are omitted at Compline.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' there are no commemorations at Vespers. Mattins is reduced to a single nocturn. At Lauds there are no commemorations. The hymns at the Little Hours do not have the Paschal Doxology. At Mass there is but a single collect.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 8 May 2022

The second week of May

Third Sunday after Pascha - Sunday within the Octave of the Solemnity of St. Joseph


The third Sunday after Pascha is of semi-double rite and its liturgical colour is white. The Gospel pericopes from St. John's Gospel have the LORD telling the Disciples that in a little while He will be going to the Father. It is also the Sunday within the Octave of the Solemnity of St. Joseph. Prior to the reform of 1911-13 this feast was celebrated on the third Sunday after Pascha but was subsequently moved to the third Wednesday after Easter. Privileged Votive Masses of the Solemnity of St. Joseph may be celebrated as noted below.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the psalms of Saturday were sung under the single antiphon, Alleluia. The chapter, Carissimi: Obsecro vos etc, was proper to the Sunday and the Office hymn was Ad regias Agni dapes. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations were sung of the preceding Office of St. Stanislaus, of the Apparition of St. Michael the Archangel and of the Octave of the Solemnity of St. Joseph. The Paschal Suffrage of the Cross was omitted due to the Octave and double feasts. At Compline Te lucis was sung with the Paschal Doxology and the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is the great proclamation of the Resurrection, Surrexit Dominus vere, Alleluia. The Office hymn is Rex sempiterne Caelitum. In the first nocturn the lessons are the Incipit of the book of the Apocalypse of St. John. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from a sermon of St. Augustine and in the third nocturn St. Augustine also provides the homily on St. John's Gospel. At Lauds the Office hymn is Aurora caelum purpurat. After the collect of the Sunday, commemorations are sung of St Michael the Archangel and of the Octave of St. Joseph. The Paschal Commemoration of the Cross is omitted.

At Prime and the Hours the hymns have the Paschal Doxology. At Prime the Dominical preces are omitted due to the Octave and double feast.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of St. Michael the Archangel, the third collect is of the Octave of St. Joseph. The Creed is sung, the Paschaltide preface is sung and the last Gospel is of St. Michael the Archangel.

Masses other than Conventual Masses may all be of the Solemnity of St. Joseph. The Mass Adjutor is sung, as on the feast. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Sunday, the Creed is sung. The preface is of St. Joseph and the last Gospel is of the Sunday. The liturgical colour is white.

At Vespers the Dominical psalms, 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113 are sung under the single antiphon, Alleluia. The Office hymn is Ad regias Agni dapes. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations are sung of the following Office of St. Gregory Nazianzen, of St. Michael the Archangel and of the Octave of St. Joseph. The Paschal Commemoration of the Cross is omitted due to the double feasts and Octave. At Compline the Domincal preces are also omitted due to the Octave.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph and its Octave have been abolished with the execrable 'Joe the Worker' day replacing it on May 1st. There were no commemorations at Vespers. At Compline and at the Hours Te lucis is sung with the ordinary Doxology. Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn of three lessons. At Lauds there are no commemorations. At Mass there is a single collect. At Vespers there are no commemorations.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Wednesday, 4 May 2022

Solemnity of St. Joseph


The feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph Spouse of the Blessed Virgin and Patron of the Universal Church is a Double of the First class with an Octave. It is the primary feast of St. Joseph (c.f. 19th March) although is now a feast that is largely forgotten or even sadly unknown after the liturgical changes of the last century. The feast was introduced into the Universal Kalendar by Pius IX in 1847 originally as the 'Patronage of St. Joseph' as a Double of the Second Class to be celebrated on the third Sunday after Easter. In 1870 the feast had 'Patron of the Church' added to its title. In 1911 the feast was renamed the Solemnity of St. Joseph and became a primary Double of the First Class. In 1913 the celebration was moved to the Wednesday after the second Sunday after Easter with an Octave. Although relatively modern the feast is a fine example of typology with the Patriarch Joseph being used as an OT 'type' of the foster-father of the LORD. The feast of St. Monica is commemorated in the Office and Mass.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons Jacob autem etc were sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 116. The chapter was proper and the Office hymn was Te Joseph celebrent agmina Caelitum. After the collect of the feast a commemoration was sung of the preceding feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross. At Compline the Dominical psalms were sung and Te lucis was sung with the Paschal Doxology.


The Office is proper. At Mattins the invitatory is Laudemus Deum nostrum In veneratione beati Joseph, protectoris nostri, alleluia and the Office hymn is, again, Te Joseph. The antiphons of the nocturns are proper and, as at Vespers, rather beautiful:

I. Angelus Domini apparuit in somnis Joseph, dicens: Surge, et accipe Puerum et Matrem ejus, et fuge in Ægyptum; et esto ibi, usque dum dicam tibi, alleluia.

II. Angelus Domini apparuit in somnis Joseph, dicens: Surge, et accipe Puerum et Matrem ejus, et vade in terram Israel; defunct sunt enim qui quaerebant animam Pueri, alleluia.

III. Consurgens Joseph, accepit Puerum et Matrem ejus, et venit in terram Israel; et habitavit in civitate, quae vocatur Nazareth, alleluia.

In the first nocturn the lessons are from the book of Genesis and are extended in comparison to those for St. Joseph's 19th March feast. In the second nocturn the lessons are from a sermon on St. Joseph by St. Bernardine of Siena and in the third nocturn the homily is from St. Augustine on the Gospel fragment from St. Luke. The Te Deum is sung. At Lauds the antiphons from Vespers are sung with the Sunday psalms (92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148). The Office hymn is Caelitum Joseph decus. After the collect of the feast a commemoration is sung of St. Monica.

At Prime and the Hours the hymns are sung with the Paschaltide Doxology. At Prime the festal psalms (53, 118i & 118ii) are sung under the first antiphon of Lauds and the lectio brevis is Fílius accréscens Joseph.

Mass is sung after Terce and is proper, with the introit Adjutor. The Gloria is sung. (In private Masses the second collect is of St. Monica). The Creed is sung and the preface is that of St. Joseph.


At second Vespers the antiphons, psalms and hymn are those that were sung yesterday at first Vespers. The Office hymn is Te Joseph. The versicle and its respond along with the antiphon on the Magnificat are proper to second Vespers. After the collect of the feast a commemoration is sung of the following Office of St. Pius V. At Compline the Dominical psalms are sung.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Solemnity of St. Joseph simply does not exist as this beautiful feast was suppressed in 1956 to be replaced by the appalling 'San Giuseppe Comunista'. The 19th March returned to being the primary feast of St. Joseph.  The vast majority of 'traditionalists', who vociferously support the 'liturgical books of 1962', are completely and blissfully ignorant of the existence of the Solemnity of St. Joseph yet alone its abolition. A few who are aware of it substitute the Office of the feast for the execrable Joe the Worker travesty of May 1st. Whilst the Benedictine Order had the choice of adopting either the Worker feast or keeping the former Solemnity of St. Joseph on May 1st on a congregation by congregation basis (as they did with the next texts of the Assumption) I am unaware of this exemption pertaining to anyone else.

Sunday, 1 May 2022

The first week of May

SS Philip and James Apostles


The feast of the Holy Apostles SS Philip and James is a Double of the Second Class and its liturgical colour is red. In Western rites SS Philip and James have been honoured together as the relics of both Apostles were jointly placed in the confessio of the Church of the Apostles in Rome at its consecration in the sixth century. The anniversary of this, the church's dedication in 560, is May 1st and so the feast of two Apostles has graced this day in Western Kalendars for nearly 1500 years. St. Philip, tradition tells us, was from Bethsaida. He was crucified at Hierapolis in Phrygia. St. James the Less was from Cana and was the first bishop of Jerusalem. St. Paul says (Galatians 1:19) 'I did not see any apostle except James the brother of the Lord'. St. James was cast from the pediment of the Temple on the orders of the Jewish High Priest and then clubbed to death. The second Sunday after Pascha is commemorated in the Office and at Mass.

The above photograph, taken by the writer whilst on a research trip to Rome three decades ago, shows the tomb of the Holy Apostles Saints Philip and James in the confessio of the Church. Far better photographs can be found on the Orbis Catholicus Secundus blog where the two photographs below can be found with others.




At first Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons proper to the feast, Domine, ostende nobis Patrem etc, were sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 116. The chapter was Stabant justi and the Office hymn was Tristes erant Apostoli. The antiphon on the Magnificat, Non turbetur etc., and collect were both proper to the feast. After the collect of the feast commemorations were sung of the preceding Office of St. Catherine of Siena and of the second Sunday after Pascha.  At Compline Te lucis was sung with the Paschaltide Doxology and the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is Regem Apostolorum Dominum Venite adoremus and the Office hymn is again Tristes erant Apostoli. In the first nocturn the antiphons Stabunt justi etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 18, 33 & 44. The lessons are the Incipit of letter of St. James taken from the fourth Sunday after Easter. These lessons are followed by the responsories from the Common. In the second nocturn the antiphons Ecce etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 46, 60 & 63 and the lessons are proper to the feast. In the third nocturn the antiphons Lux perpetua etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 74, 96 & 98. The Gospel fragment is from St. John and the pericope contains the passage where the LORD tells St. Philip that if he wishes to see the Father to see Him and that in the Father's house there are many mansions. The homily is from St. Augustine. Today the ninth lesson is the homily of the Sunday. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the antiphons Domine ostende nobis Patrem etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148. The Office hymn is Paschale mundo gaudium and is sung with the Paschal Doxology. At the Hours the antiphons from Lauds are sung in the usual sequence. The Office hymns have the Paschal Doxology and the festal psalms are sung at the Hours. At Prime the lectio brevis is Scimus quoniam.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Mass is proper, Exclamaverunt etc. After the collect of the feast the second collect is of the Sunday. The Gloria is sung, the Creed is sung, the preface is of the Apostles and the last Gospel is of the Sunday.

At second Vespers the antiphons Domine ostende nobis Patrem are again sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 112, 115, 125 & 138. The Office hymn is Tristes erant Apostoli. After the collect of the feast commemorations are sung of the following Office of St. Athanasius and of the Sunday. At Compline Te lucis is sung with the Paschaltide Doxology and the Dominical preces are omitted.

The 'liturgical books of 1962' plummet to yet another low point today with the feast of St. Joseph the Worker. The ancient feast of SS Philip and James has been cast aside until May 11th, the first 'free' liturgical day, expelled from its traditional place in the Kalendar of May 1st by this repugnant accretion to the Calendar. The Sunday is commemorated at both Vespers, Lauds and Mass. There is no ninth lesson of the Sunday. The hymns of the Hours do not have the Paschaltide Doxology. At Prime the lectio brevis is of the season. At Mass there is no last Gospel of the Sunday.

Papa Pacelli's Commission for General Liturgical Reform had discussed making May 1st a Marian feast but settled on S. Giuseppe Artigiano (c.f. minutes of meeting 45; 19 Oct 1954 and 59; 17 Jan 1956 in Giampietro, N., 'Il Card. Ferdinado Antonelli e gli sviluppi della riforma liturgica dal 1948 al 1970', Studia Anselmiana, Rome, 1998). Clearly feasts of antiquity were not considered particularly sacred - but then neither was anything else - so from 1956 the beautiful, albeit relatively modern, feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph - celebrated on Wednesday of this week - and its Octave were abolished.  The irony is that the feast of 'San Giuseppe Comunista' introduced as a Double of the First Class, becoming First Class in the 1960 Calendar revision - the highest rank of feast, lasted less than fifteen years before plummeting to an 'optional memoria' in the 1969 Calendar revision.
 
Considering the liturgical climate of the 1940s and 1950s the feast reflected the general ethos of the reformers. An account of a 'workers' Mass' of the period is a prime example of that ethos:

"Permittente Summo Pastore: a case of a bishop's Mass so celebrated in this 'French' manner with express papal permission is provided by the cathedral of Castres, during November, 1944. Our eyewitness account implies that such an experiment was tried in many places. The account is lengthy, but of special interest: It was ten o'clock at night. The cathedral was already full of people, and the crowd overflowed into the street. The whole congregation was composed of workers brought there by their fellow workers. A stage, erected on a level with the Communion rail, extended some distance down the main aisle of the church. As in the Middle Ages our sanctuaries were used for the presentation of religious plays, so tonight a great mystery was to be enacted in front of the altar. All the actors were workers, wearing their work clothes. They moved forward into the glare of the spotlights. The drama began, concerning itself first with the shame of conquered France, its sufferings during the exodus which drove millions of its homeless people into the south, the misery of its prisoners held in Germany for five years, the horror of the bombardments. There, for two hours, the ordeals of a suffering people unfolded before the congregation. The organ music changed into a joyful melody when two carpenters brought to the stage a carpenters' workbench. Next, weavers appeared, placing on this improvised altar three white linen cloths which they had themselves woven. Two miners took their places on either side of the altar, with their lighted lamps like tapers, linking the world of labor with the worship of God. Lastly, came a printer, with a Missal he had printed especially for this occasion. Then Msgr. Moussaron, Archbishop of Albi, entered, garbed in his purple cassock. In full view of the congregation he was robed in his vestments while a priest explained their meaning. When midnight struck, the archbishop proceeded to the temporary altar and, facing the congregation, began the celebration of the Mass. By special dispensation of the pope, this Mass, except for the Canon, was said in French. The effect on the congregation was instant and profound. For many it was as if they were hearing Mass for the first time."

Ellard, G., 'The Mass of the Future', 1948, p.155

Art: Melkite Church in Australia

Sunday, 24 April 2022

Dominica in Albis - Low Sunday


Dominica in Albis, Low Sunday is a greater-double of the first class and its liturgical colour, until Vespers this year, is white. The Sunday is also often referred to as Quasimodo from the first words of its introit. Anciently on this day, or on Saturday, those who had been baptised on Holy Saturday took off their white robes which had been worn since the Oil of Catechumens and Chrism had been lavished upon them on Holy Saturday. The Gospel at Mattins and Mass is the account of the LORD appearing in to His disciples behind the shut doors of the room and the doubting of St. Thomas. The Office of the Octave of Pascha ended with the Office of None yesterday.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the psalms of Saturday were sung under the single antiphon, Alleluia. Chapters and hymns return to the Office from this Vespers. The Paschaltide hymn Ad regias Agni dapes was sung. Its Doxology,Deo Patri sit gloria, Et Filio qui a mortuis, Surrexit ac Paraclito, In sempiterna saecula, is sung at all hymns of Iambic metre until the Ascension. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen was sung. From this Office the dismissal, Benedicamus Domino, is sung without the double Alleluia that marked the Paschal Octave. At Compline the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory Surrexit Dominus vere Alleluia continues to be sung. The Office hymn is Rex Sempiterne Caelitum. The psalms of each nocturn are sung under a single antiphon. In the first nocturn the antiphon is Alleluia, * lapis revolutus est, alleluia: ab ostio monumenti, alleluia, alleluia and the lessons are from the Epistle of St. Paul to the Colossians. In the second nocturn the antiphon is Alleluia, * quem quaeris mulier? alleluia, alleluia, viventem cum mortuis, alleluia, alleluia and the lessons are taken from a sermon of St. Augustine on the Octave of Easter. In the third nocturn the antiphon is Alleluia, * noli flere Maria, alleluia: resurrexit Dominus, alleluia, alleluia and the homily is from the writings of St. Gregory on St. John's Gospel. At Lauds the Sunday psalms (Pss. 92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148) are sung under a single antiphon, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. The Office hymn is Aurora caelum purpurat. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen is sung. The Suffrage is omitted.

At Prime (Pss. 117, 118i & 118ii) and the Hours the psalms are again sung under a single antiphon at each Hour, Alleluia, * alleluia, alleluia - which is not doubled of course, even today.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung. The second collect is of St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen. The Creed is sung, the preface is of Paschaltide (In hoc potissimum).

In the afternoon there is a colour change to red and first Vespers of the feast of St. Mark the Evangelist are sung. The antiphons Sancti tui etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 116. The Office hymn is Tristes erant Apostoli. After the collect of the feast commemorations of the Sunday and of St. Fidelis are sung. At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' there are no commemorations at Vespers. Mattins is reduced to a single nocturn of three lessons with the single antiphon Alleluia, lapis revolutus etc. At Lauds there are no commemorations. At the Little Hours the Paschaltide Doxology is not sung with the hymns. At Mass there is a change to one word in the introit as 'rationabile' replaced 'rationabiles' in the 1953 edition of the Roman Missal and subsequent editions, there are no commemorations. Vespers are of the Sunday without even a commemoration of St. Mark. At Compline the ordinary Doxology and tone are sung with Te lucis.

Image: Jerome Nadal.

Sunday, 17 April 2022

Dominica Resurrectionis - Easter Sunday - Pascha


Hac die quam fecit Dominus, Solemnitas solemnitatum, et Pascha nostrum Resurrectio Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi secundum carnem.

These glorious words are sung, to the tone of the Passion, at Prime today at the reading of the Martyrology before the announcement of the day and moon for tomorrow.  Holy Pascha is a Double of the First Class with a privileged Octave of the First Order. This year the feast of St. Anicetus is omitted.

At the final stages of the Vesperal Liturgy of Holy Saturday yesterday morning an antiphon consisting of a triple Alleluia was sung, doubled, with psalm 116. The antiphon on the Magnificat was Vespere autem sabbati etc. After the Vesperal Liturgy the traditional blessing of houses takes place and, in some countries, the Paschal food.  Compline was sung, at the normal time. On Holy Saturday the Office of Compline has some interesting variations. It began with the usual Jube, domne, blessing, short lesson and confession. Converte nos, Deus, salutaris noster and its response were then sung followed by Deus in adjutorium etc with Alleluia for the first time since Septuagesima. The psalms were sung, without an antiphon, to a solemn form of tone 2. The hymn, chapter and responsory are omitted and Vespere autem sabbati sung as a fragment antiphon to the Nunc dimittis. After the Canticle the antiphon is sung in full. After the usual collect, Visita quaesumus, the antiphon Regina Caeli is sung with its versicle and collect.

Mattins begin with the solemn tone for Deus in adjutorium etc. The invitatory is Surrexit Dominus vere Alleluia and psalm 94 is sung to a lovely tone 6 setting. Mattins consists of one nocturn of three psalms. There is no Office Hymn throughout the Octave (c.f. Monastic praxis). The first antiphon is Ego sum qui sum etc and sung with psalm 1. The second antiphon, Postulavi Patrem meum etc, is sung with psalm 2. The third antiphon, Ego dormivi etc, is sung with psalm 3. A versicle and its response are sung follwed by the absolution Exaudi etc. The first lesson has the Gospel fragment Mark 16: 1-7 and is followed by a homily of St. Gregory the Great. The two responsories Angelus Domini descendit and Cum transisset sabbatum are famous and intimately connected with the Quem quaeritis ceremonies. The second lesson, Notandum vero nobis est is sung followed by the second responsory. During the second responsory the cantors and the celebrant don copes the principal one pre-intones the Te Deum. Six pluvialistae assist the Hebdomadarius where possible. The Te Deum is then sung and, where it is the custom the bells ring throughout.

Lauds follow immediately and have a series of beautiful antiphons: Angelus autem DominiEt ecce terraemotusErat autemPrae timore autem ejus and Respondens autem Angelus all taking up the theme of the Angels, earthquake and empty tomb. Psalms 92, 99, 62, Benedicite & 148 are sung with these antiphons. The chapter, hymn, versicle and response are replaced by the Haec dies. After Haec dies the antiphon Et valde mane is sung and then the Benedictus sung to a solemn tone 8. During the Benedictus the altar, the choir and people are incensed in the normal manner. The antiphon is repeated and the collect of Easter, Deus, qui hodierna die sung. Benedicamus Domino, Alleluia, Alleluia and its response are followed by the solemn Regina Caeli, its versicle and collect.

The morning Office begins with Prime. There are no hymns at the Hours during the entire Paschal Octave in the Roman rite. At Prime psalms 53 and the first two divisi of Ps. 118 are sung to a solemn form of Tone 2. Haec Dies is sung after the psalmody and then everything else is omitted up to the collect Domine Deus omnipotens. The Martyrology is then sung, starting with the verse indicated above. Then Sancta Maria etc is sung, the collect Dirigere et sanctificare etc and the short lesson Si consurrexistis. Terce, and the other Little Hours, are even more simple in their structure. At Terce the usual stanzas of Ps. 118 are sung to the special form of Tone 2 followed by Haec dies and the collect of the day.

Mass is sung after Terce. Instead of Asperges me the Paschaltide Vidi aquam is sung today and all other Sundays in Paschaltide. In the great Mass of Easter, Resurrexi, the Gloria is sung, one collect is sung. Haec dies is sung as the Gradual. The sequence Victimae paschali laudes is sung after the Alleluia. The Creed is sung and Ite missa est alleluia, alleluia is sung as the dismissal.

Sext and None have exactly the same structure as Terce. At Vespers the antiphons sung at Lauds, Angelus autem Domini etc, are are sung with the usual Sunday psalms. Haec dies is sung in place of the chapter, hymn and versicle & response. The solemn tone is used for Benedicamus Domino, alleluia, alleluia.

At Compline the usual psalms are sung to Tone 8G without any preceding antiphon, followed by an antiphon consisting of Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. This is followed by the Nunc dimittis sung to the Paschal Tone 2. Haec dies is then sung followed by the collect Visita quaesumus etc and then, as yesterday the antiphon Regina coeli etc.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' yesterday afternoon a novel Vespers, created in 1956, in said, not sung, with unlit candles. It follows the form used on Mandy Thursday and Good Friday but substituting the first antiphon Calicem salutaris with Hodie aflictus.  The antiphon on the Magnificat is newly crafted from Mt. 27: 62, 66 Principes sacerdotum (c.f. IX responsory Mattins of Holy Saturday) and the new collect used at Mattins & Lauds and the Hours of Holy Saturday is used again at Vespers. Compline is said by those who do not take part in the nocturnal shenanigans of the Easter Vigil. Compline has the same structure as on Mandy Thursday and Good Friday but the collect Visita, quaesumus replaces Respice. There is no Regina Caeli and the Offices are in the same penitential spirit as those of Mandy Thursday and Good Friday. Those, fortunate enough, not to take part in the Easter Vigil say Mattins & Lauds. For those who do attend it the novel Easter Vigil replaces Compline, Mattins & Lauds so the Queen of Feasts, as Gregory DiPippo has pointed out, becomes the only feast of the Liturgical Year - and the greatest feast of all - not to have first Vespers, Mattins, proper Lauds or the Te Deum.  The rest of the day is, thankfully, free from further significant changes.

Thursday, 14 April 2022

Mandy Thursday


Image: Engraving of the pope washing the feet of thirteen paupers from Thurston's 'Lent and Holy Week'

Sunday, 10 April 2022

Holy Week

Dominica in Palmis - Palm Sunday

Assisi-frescoes-entry-into-jerusalem-pietro lorenzetti
Entry of Christ into Jerusalem, Pietro Lorenzetti, Wikipedia

Palm Sunday is a privileged semi-double Sunday of the first class and the sixth, and last, Sunday in Lent. No feast can take its place. In the Roman rite Palm Sunday, in its traditional form, is a truly magnificent day with the splendid solemn blessing of Palms and Procession before the principle Mass. The liturgical colour, throughout, is violet.  The liturgy of the day, particularly the ceremonies of the Palms and Mass symbolically prefigure the events of the week ahead.

The Office began, as usual in Lent, with Vespers yesterday morning. Vespers were sung with the antiphons and psalms of Saturday. The chapter, from Philippians, Fratres: Hoc enim senite, was proper to the Sunday. The Office hymm was Vexilla regis. The antiphon on the MagnificatPater juste, and the collect were both proper to Palm Sunday. At Compline, sung at the usual time, the Dominical preces were sung.

At Mattins there are the usual three nocturns. The antiphons and psalms at all the nocturns are those appointed for Sundays. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the book of Jeremiah the Prophet. In the second nocturn the lessons are a sermon of St. Leo the Great and in the third a homily of St. Ambrose. The Te Deum is not sung but a ninth responsory, Circumdederunt me viri mendaces etc., is sung in its place. At Lauds the proper antiphons, Dominus Deus etc., are sung with the second scheme of Psalms  (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and the Office hymn is Lustra sex.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday, Pueri Hebraeorum etc. At Prime psalms 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two divisi of Ps. 118 are sung. The Dominical preces are sung and the short lesson is Faciem meam. At Terce the antiphon is Pueri Hebraeorum vestimenta .  Both Pueri antiphons will be heard again shortly afterwards, in slightly different textual form, at the distribution of the Palms.


The beginning of the Blessing of Palms, Missale Romanum, Paris, 1572, B.L. 1475bb15 - the very first Tridentine Missal this writer ever held and studied at the British Library in the 1990s

The Asperges ceremony takes place after Terce and before the principal Mass as usual. The deacon and subdeacon wear violet folded chasubles. Being in Passiontide the Lesser Doxology is omitted after the verse of the Miserere. After the Asperges the celebrant and ministers proceed to the Epistle corner and begin the solemn blessing of Palms whilst the choir sing the antiphon Hosanna fili David, O Rex Israel etc. The rubrics direct that the Palms are to be blessed at the Epistle side of the altar.

As the choir sing the antiphon Hosanna Filio David  the celebrant reads it in a low voice and then chant the collect Deus, quim diligere which is then followed by the reading of an Epistle and Gospel of the blessing. The normal ceremonies of High Mass are followed. The subdeacon removes his folded chasuble to sing the Epistle taken from the Book of Exodus. Following the Epistle two texts are given, Collegerunt pontifices and In monte Oliveti (the latter will appear again as a responsory during the Triduum) to be sung as a 'gradual', both may be sung.


Following the Gospel the deacon resumes his folded chasuble and the collect Auge fidem is sung followed by a preface, Sanctus and four further collects Deus, qui dispersa, Deus, qui miro, Deus, qui per olivae and Benedic quaesumus. The presence of a preface is indicative of the solemn blessing (c.f. the great blessing of waters at Epiphany). The collect Deus, qui miro is a didactic masterpiece. Readers will note the strong correlation between the text of the collect and of the second lesson of Mattins for the Saturday before Palm Sunday from St. Augustine:
O God, who, by the wonderful order of Thy disposition, hast been pleased to manifest the dispensation of our salvation even from things insensible: grant, we beseech Thee, that the devout hearts of Thy faithful may understand to their benefit what is mystically signified by the fact that on this day the multitude, taught by a heavenly illumination, went forth to meet their Redeemer, and strewed branches of palms and olive at His feet. The branches of palms, therefore, represent His triumphs over the prince of death; and the branches of olive proclaim, in a manner, the coming of a spiritual unction. For that pious multitude understood that these things were then prefigured; that our Redeemer, compassionating human miseries, was about to fight with the prince of death for the life of the whole world, and, by dying, to triumph. For which cause they dutifully ministered such things as signified in Him the triumphs of victory and the richness of mercy. And we also, with full faith, retaining this as done and signified, humbly beseech Thee, O holy Lord, Father almighty, everlasting God, through the same Jesus Christ our Lord, that in Him and through Him, whose members Thou hast been pleased to make us, we may become victorious over the empire of death, and may deserve to be partakers of His glorious Resurrection.

The celebrant then puts on incense and blesses it. The Palms are then sprinkled with lustral water, the celebrant saying in a low voice Asperges me etc, and then censed. Another collect, Deus, qui Filium is then sung. The celebrant then receives his Palm from the senior canon present. If no other priest is present the celebrant kneels and takes the Palm from the of the altar, kisses it then passes it to the subdeacon who places it again on the mensa. The celebrant then gives Palms to the deacon and subdeacon and other ministers and then the people. The Palm is kissed first and then the celebrant's hand. During the distribution the antiphons Pueri Hebraeorum and Pueri Hebraeorum vestimenta are sung. After the distribution the celebrant and ministers go back to the altar, bow to the Cross and then go to the Epistle corner where the celebrant's hands are washed. Then, at the missal, he sings the collect Omnipotens sempiterne.

Distribution of the Palms at a Pontifical Mass from the Caeremoniale Episcoporum

As the celebrant's hands are washed after the distribution of the Palms, the, veiled Processional Cross is decorated with some of the blessed Palms. A Procession is then formed, led by the thurifer, followed by the subdeacon (of the Mass, not this day an additional subdeacon) bearing the Processional Cross. The deacon sings Procedamus in pace and the following antiphons are sung during the Procession Cum appropinquaret, Cum audisset, Ante sex dies, Occurrunt turbae, Cum angelis et pueris and Turba multa.


Before re-entering the church, Fribourg - New Liturgical Movement

Ideally the Procession goes outside and around the church but circumstances may dictate the Procession must simply go around the aisles of the church. Towards the end of the Procession the cantors re-enter the church and the door is closed. The beautiful hymn of Theodolph Gloria, laus, et honor is then sung in alternation between the cantors inside the church and everyone else outside. At the end of the hymn the subdeacon, or Crucifer when there are no ministers, strikes the church door three times with the foot of the Processional Cross and the party re-enters the church to the singing of Ingrediente Domino.

The celebrant removes his cope and dons his chasuble. The preparatory prayers are said but the psalm Judica me is omitted being in Passiontide. The introit is Domine, ne longe etc. There is no Gloria. Psalm 21 is sung in its entirety as a Tract. The major difference from any other Sunday is singing of the Passion according to St. Matthew by three additional deacons of the Passion. The text of the Passion is Matthew 26: 1-75; 27: 1-66. After the singing of the Passion the last part, Altera autem die...lapidem cum custodibus, is sung with the ceremonies of a Gospel by the deacon of the Mass (having removed his folded chasuble etc) to a most haunting tone.



The choir and people hold their Palms during the singing of the Passion. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Cross and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the celebrant and altar.

Sext and None again have proper antiphons, Tibi revelavi etc and Invocabo etc respectively. 

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday are sung. The chapter is Hoc enim senite and the Office hymn is Vexilla regis. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration is sung of St. Leo. At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Palm Sunday has been given a radical 'makeover' to the extent that the official title of the day has even been changed to 'Second Sunday of the Passion or Palm Sunday'. Mattins is cut down to the usual single nocturn of three lessons and there are no commemorations at Lauds and Vespers. At Prime the psalmody is Ps. 53, 118(i) & 118(ii) as on feasts. At the massively truncated blessing of Palms the ministers wear red dalmatic and tunicle instead of folded chasubles, the prayers at the foot of the altar are omitted, the Passion is shortened, the dismissal is Ite, missa est and the last Gospel is omitted. (In Masses without the blessing of Palms the Gospel for the blessing Cum appropinquasset Jesus is read as a proper last Gospel, the only surviving proper last Gospel in the 'liturgical books of 1962').  For those interested in the depressing catalogue of destruction of what turned a splendid day into a miserable thing an earlier post here gives the grim details.  The image below shows a typical blessing of Palms in the reformed rite, actually following its rubrics, with the palms on a table versus populum etc.





Sunday, 3 April 2022

Passion Week

Passion Sunday


Passion Sunday is the fifth and penultimate Sunday in Lent. It is a semi-double Sunday of the first class and its liturgical colour is violet.

The most apparent and visually striking feature of this Sunday is the Roman practice of veiling all crosses and images with violet cloth. The custom seems to have developed from the words in the day's Gospel 'Jesus autem abscondit se' - but Jesus hid himself. The veiling takes place after Mass on Saturday morning before Vespers are sung. The praxis should not be confused with that of Lenten Array where holy images were covered in off-white linen or cloth from the very beginning of Lent. From Vespers along with the veiling, the liturgy takes on certain more penitential aspects that belong to Passiontide. The Gloria Patri is omitted from the invitatory of Mattins, from the responsories of Mattins and from the short responsories of the Hours. It is also omitted from the Asperges ceremony before Mass on both Passion Sunday and on Palm Sunday. In Masses 'of the season' Gloria Patri is also omitted from the introit and Lavabo along with the psalm Judica me Deus. The Suffrage of the Saints is also omitted at Vespers and at Lauds until after Trinity Sunday.

At Vespers, yesterday morning, the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung, the chapter was proper to Passion Sunday. The Office hymn was Vexilla regis. This hymn is sung at Vespers throughout Passiontide and at the Mass of the Pre-Sanctified on Good Friday morning. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect were proper to the Sunday. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. Francis of Paola was sung. At Compline the Lesser Doxology was omitted from the short responsory as noted and the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is Hodie, si vocem Domini audieritis, Nolite obdurare corda vestra from Ps. 94 and a special rubric indicates the omission of that verse in the psalm. The hymn is Pange, lingua ...Lauream. The same invitatory and hymn are sung from today until the Sacred Triduum in the Office of the Season. The antiphons given in the Psalter for Sundays are sung. In the first nocturn the lessons are the Incipit of the book of Jeremiah. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the ninth sermon on Lent by St. Leo the Great. In the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Gregory on St. John's Gospel. The Te Deum is omitted as on other Lenten Sundays and a ninth responsory, Quis dabit capiti, sung in its place. At Lauds the antiphons, Vide Dominum etc., are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es & 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and office hymn is Lustra sex.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons, Ego daemoninum etc., are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and 118(i) & 118(ii). At Prime the Dominical preces are sung.

Mass is sung after Terce. The ministers wear folded chasubles. The Gloria is not sung. The second collect is Ecclesiae. There is no third collect in Passiontide. As usual in Lent a Tract is sung after the Gradual. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Cross and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino sung by the deacon whilst facing the celebrant and altar.

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday are sung. The Office hymn is Vexilla regis. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. Isidore is sung. At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Passion Sunday becomes re-branded as 'First Sunday of the Passion'. Vespers were sung yesterday in the afternoon as at any other time of the year. There are no commemorations at either Vespers. Mattins is reduced down to the usual single nocturn of three lessons. There are no commemorations at Lauds. At Prime the psalmody is Ps. 53, 118(i) & 118(ii) as on feasts, the Dominical preces have been abolished. At Mass the ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle instead of folded chasubles, there is only a single collect and the dismissal is Ite, missa est.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 27 March 2022

The fourth week of Lent

Fourth Sunday in Lent

The fourth Sunday in Lent is known as Laetare Sunday after the opening words of the Introit at its Mass Laetare, Jerusalem - Rejoice Jerusalem - and is also known as 'mid-Lent' Sunday and is also 'Mothering Sunday' in many countries including Britain and Ireland. It is a semi-double Sunday of the first class. The distinguishing feature of this Sunday is the absence of folded chasubles and the permitted, though not obligatatory, use of rose-coloured vestments. Rose is perceived as a lighter shade of violet and the use of rose vestments developed from the older praxis of a golden rose being given to female monarchs by the Pope on this day. Cardinals of the Court of Rome wore rose watered-silk choir dress on this Sunday along with the corresponding Gaudete Sunday in Advent. For the rest of Lent Cardinals wore their 'winter violet' merino cassock, mantelletum and mozzeta (not the violet watered silk of their 'summer' violet). This practice disappeared at the Papal Court towards the end of the nineteenth century but continued with Cardinals at their titular churches until the 1920s.

At Vespers yesterday morning the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The Office hymn was Audi benigne conditor. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. John Damascene was sung. The Suffrage of the Saints was was omitted as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins the invitatory is, as on the previous Sundays of Lent, Non sit vobis and the Office hymn is Ex more. The antiphons given in the Psalter for Sundays are sung. In the first nocturn the lessons are from Exodus and the story of Moses and the Burning Bush. In the second nocturn the lessons are from the writings of St. Basil the Great on fasting and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Augustine on St. John's Gospel. At Lauds the antiphons, Tunc acceptabis etc., are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, the canticle Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. John Damascene was sung. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons, Accepit ergo etc., are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and 118(i) & 118(ii). The Dominical preces are omitted and the short lesson is Quaerite Dominum.

Mass is sung after Terce. As folded chasubles are not worn the organ may be played. The ministers wear violet, or rose, dalmatic and tunicle. The Gloria is not sung. The second collect is of St. John Damascene. Today there is no third collect. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Credo is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the celebrant and altar.

Vespers are of the Sunday. Pss. 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113 are sung. The Office hymn is Audi benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations are sung of the following Office of St. John of Capistrano and of St. John Damascence. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted as are the Dominical preces at Compline.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Vespers were sung yesterday in the afternoon as at any other time of the year. There are no commemorations at either Vespers. Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn of three lessons. At Prime the psalms are 53, 118(i) & 118(ii) as on feasts. At Mass there is a single collect. The dismissal is Ite, missa est.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 20 March 2022

The third week of Lent

Third Sunday in Lent


The third Sunday in Lent is a semi-double Sunday of the first class and its liturgical colour, from Mattins this year, is violet. The Gospel pericope from St. Luke at Mattins and Mass recounts the LORD casting out evil from a demoniac.

At second Vespers of the feast of St. Joseph yesterday morning the antiphons Jacob autem etc were sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 116. The Office hymn was Te, Joseph celebrent etc. After the collect of the feast a commemoration of the Sunday was sung. The Suffrage of the Saints was omitted as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins the invitatory is Non sit vobis and the Office hymn is Ex more, as on the other Sundays in Lent. The antiphons and psalms of Sunday are sung. In the first nocturn the lessons are taken from Genesis and the story of Joseph, his coat of many colours and his brothers casting him into a pit. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the Book of St. Augustine on Joseph. In the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of the Venerable Bede on St. Luke's Gospel. A ninth responsory, Lamentabatur Jacob, is sung in place of the Te Deum.

At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the Sunday, Fac benigne etc., sung with the second scheme of Psalms (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and the Office hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrage of the Saints is sung.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday, Et cum ejecisset Jesus etc. At Prime the psalms are Pss. 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two divisi of Ps. 118. The Dominical preces are sung.

Mass is sung after Terce. The deacon and subdeacon wear violet folded chasubles. There is no Gloria. The second collect is A cunctis, the third collect is Omnipotens. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Credo is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the altar and celebrant.

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday are sung at the normal time. The Office hymn is Audi, benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration is sung of the following feast of St. Benedict. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted as are the Dominical preces at Compline.

In 'liturgical books of 1962' Vespers yesterday were sung in the afternoon as at any other time of the year. Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn of three lessons. At Lauds the Suffrage has been abolished as have the Dominical preces at Prime. At Prime the psalms are Pss.53, 118(i) & 118(ii) as on feasts. At Mass the ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, as in Septuagesima etc. There is but a single collect and the dismissal is Ite, missa est.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 13 March 2022

The second week of Lent

Second Sunday in Lent

 

The second Sunday in Lent is a semi-double Sunday of the first class and its liturgical colour is violet. The Gospel pericopes from St. Matthew's Gospel give the account of the Transfiguration of the LORD.

At Vespers yesterday morning the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The chapter was proper to the Sunday and the Office hymn was Audi, benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of the preceding Office of St. Gregory the Great was sung. The Suffrage of the Saints was omitted as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins the invitatory is Non sit vobis and the Office hymn is Ex more. The antiphons and psalms given for Sunday are sung. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the twenty-seventh chapter of Genesis and the story of Jacob and Esau. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the book of St. Augustine against lying and explain the mystery of Jacob's actions. In the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Leo the Great on the Transfiguration of the LORD. A ninth responsory, Cum audisset Jacob, is sung in place of the Te Deum.

At Lauds the antiphons Domine labia mea aperies etc are proper to the Sunday and are sung with the second scheme of Psalms (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es and 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrage of the Saints is sung.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two divisions of Ps. 118. The Dominical preces are sung and the short lesson is Quaerite Dominum.

Mass is sung after Terce. The deacon and subdeacon wear violet folded chasubles. There is no Gloria. The second collect is A cunctis, the third collect is Omnipotens. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Creed is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the altar.

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms (109, 110, 111, 112 & 113) are of Sunday. The Office hymn is Audi, benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrage of the saints is sung. At Compline the Dominical preces are sung.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Vespers on Saturday are sung at the same time as any on other day of the year. There were no commemorations at Vespers. Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn of three lessons. The Suffrage of the Saints has been abolished. At Prime the psalms are the festal arrangement of Ps. 53, 118(i) & 118(ii) and the Dominical preces have been abolished. At Mass the ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, as in Septuagesima, and there is only a single collect. The dismissal is Ite, missa est.

Sunday, 6 March 2022

The first week of Lent

First Sunday in Lent


The first Sunday in Lent is a semi-double Sunday of the first class. No feast can take precedence over it or any such Sunday. The liturgical colour of the Sunday is violet. At Mass, unlike in Septuagesima, the ministers wear the ancient vesture of folded chasubles rather than dalmatic and tunicle and the organ is silent (as has been the practice too since Ash Wednesday). The Gospel pericope at Mattins and Mass is St. Matthew's account of the LORD's temptation by Satan in the desert. Vespers yesterday morning marked the ancient beginning of Lent before the addition of Ash Wednesday and the intervening days. On these added days although certain penitential practices have entered the Liturgy such as the use folded chasubles and the ferial preces at the Hours the Office hymns etc were still those used in previous weeks. Vespers of the first Sunday in Lent mark the beginning of the Pars Verna, the Spring volume of the Breviary.

At Vespers yesterday morning the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The chapter was proper, Fratres: Hortamur vos, and the Office hymn was Audi, benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of SS Perpetua and Felicity was sung. The Suffrage of the Saints was omitted as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins the invitatory is Non sit vobis and the hymn is Ex more. These are both used throughout the first four weeks of Lent. The antiphons and psalms given in the Psalter for Sundays are sung, as on previous Sundays. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the Second Letter of St. Paul to the Corinthians. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from a sermon on Lent by St. Leo the Great and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Gregory the Great on St. Matthew's account of the temptation of the LORD. As in Septuagesima there is no Te Deum but a ninth responsory, Angelis suis Deus mandavit de te.

At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the Sunday, Cor mundum etc., and the second scheme of Psalms is sung (50, 117, 62, Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and the Office hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of SS Perpetua and Felicty is sung. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday, Jesus autem etc. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and 118(i) & 118(ii). The Dominical preces are omitted and the short lesson is Quaerite Dominum.

Mass is sung after Terce. As folded chasubles are worn by the ministers the organ is silent. The Gloria is not sung. The second collect is of SS Perpetua and Felicity. Today, there is no third collect. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Creed is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the celebrant and altar.

Vespers are of the Sunday, sung at the normal time (as Sundays are not fast days). The antiphons and psalms are those used on Sundays, the chapter is proper and the Office hymn is Audi, benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations are sung of the following Office of St.Thomas Aquinas and of SS Perpetua and Felicty. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted as are the Dominical preces at Compline.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Vespers on the weekdays of Lent are sung at the same time as during the rest of the Liturgical year. There are no commemorations at either Vespers. Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn of three lessons. At Lauds there are no commemorations. At Prime the psalms are Ps. 53, 118(i) & 118(ii) as on feasts. At Mass the ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, as in Septuagesima. There is but a single collect. The dismissal is Ite, missa est.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 27 February 2022

The week of Quinquagesima

Quinquagesima Sunday


Quinquagesima Sunday is a semi-double of the second class and its liturgical colour is violet. The Gospel pericopes are taken from St. Luke and give the account of the giving of sight to the man born blind.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The chapter was proper to Quinqugesima Sunday, Fratres: Si linguis hominum, and the Office hymn was Jam sol recedit igneus. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect were also proper to Quinquagesima Sunday. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration was sung of St. Gabriel of our Lady of Sorrows. The Suffrage of the Saints was omitted as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins, as on the previous two Sundays, the antiphons and psalms are those used on Sundays throughout the year and the Office hymn is Primo die. In the first nocturn the lessons are again from Genesis and this Sunday concern the story of Abraham. In the second nocturn the lessons are from St. Ambrose on the Book on the Patriarch Abraham and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily from St. Gregory on St. Luke's Gospel of the man blind from birth whose sight was restored by the LORD. The blind man is a figure of the human race according to St. Gregory. A ninth responsory, Caecus sedebat secus viam etc, is sung in place of the Te Deum.

At Lauds the 'second scheme' of psalms is sung: Pss. 50, 117, 62, Benedictus es and 148. The antiphons at Lauds are proper for Quinquagesima Sunday, Secundum multitudinem etc. The Office hymn is Aeterne. The antiphon at the Benedictus and the collect are proper to Quinquagesima. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration is sung of St. Gabriel of our Lady of Sorrows. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted.

At all the Hours the antiphons and chapters are proper to Quinquagesima Sunday. At Prime the order of psalmody is that used when the second scheme of Lauds is sung, i.e. Pss. 92, 99 (displaced at Lauds) and Ps. 118i & 118ii. The versicle in the short responsory at Prime is Qui natus es. The Dominical preces are omitted.

At Mass the Gloria is omitted, the second collect is of St. Gabriel of our Lady of Sorrows. Today there is no third collect. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Credo is sung, the Preface is of the Blessed Trinity and Benedicamus Domino is sung as the dismissal by the deacon facing the altar.

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday are sung, the chapter is proper to the Sunday as is the antiphon at the Magnificat. The Office hymn is Lucis creator. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. Gabriel of our Lady of Sorrows. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted as are the Domincal preces.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' there are no commemorations at either Vespers. At Mattins there is only a single nocturn. At Prime Pss. 53, 118i & 118ii are sung, as on festal days. At Mass there is a single collect and Benedicamus Domino is suppressed in favour of Ite, Missa est.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 20 February 2022

The week of Sexagesima

Sexagesima Sunday


Sexagesima Sunday is a semi-double Sunday of the second class and its liturgical colour is violet. The Sunday is characterised by a very lengthy Epistle from St. Paul's Latter Epistle to the Corinthians. The Gospel pericopes are from St. Luke and contain the parable of the sower with his seed landing on rock, amongst weeds and on the good ground.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The chapter was proper to the Sunday, Fratres: Libenter suffertis, and the Office hymn was Jam sol recedit igneus. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrage of the Saints was sung as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins the antiphons and psalms are from the Psalter for Sundays. In the first nocturn the lessons continue to be read from Genesis (Ch. 5 & 6), the beginning of the story of Noah. In the second nocturn the lessons are from St. Ambrose on Noah and the Ark and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily from St. Gregory on the Gospel of the seed falling on good and poor ground. A ninth responsory, Cum turba plurima, is sung in place of the Te Deum.

At Lauds the 'second scheme' of psalms is sung: Pss 50, 117, 62, Canticle of the Three Children (Benedictus es) and 148. The antiphons at Lauds are proper for Sexagesima Sunday, Secundum magnam misericordiam etc as are the chapter and antiphon on the Benedictus. After the collect of the Sunday the suffrage of the Saints is sung.

At Prime the order of psalmody is Pss. 92, 99 (displaced at Lauds) 118i & 118ii. The Dominical preces are omitted. At the Hours the antiphons, Semen cecidit etc, and chapters are proper to Sexagesima Sunday.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is omitted, the second collect is A cunctis, the third collect chosen by the Dean or rector. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Creed is sung, the Preface is of the Trinity and Benedicamus Domino is sung as the dismissal by the deacon facing the altar.

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday (109, 110, 111, 112 & 113) are sung. The Office hymn is Lucis creator. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrage is sung as are the Dominical preces at Compline.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Suffrage of the Saints has been abolished as have the Dominical preces at Compline and Prime. Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn. At Prime the arrangement of psalmody is festive, Pss. 53, 118i, 118ii. At Mass there is single collect and Benedicamus Domino is suppressed in favour of Ite, missa est.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 13 February 2022

The week of Septuagesima

Septuagesima Sunday


Septuagesima is a semi-double Sunday of the second class and its liturgical colour is violet.

At Vespers of Septuagesima yesterday afternoon the liturgical mood became more sombre as penitential violet became the liturgical colour of the season. Although more sombre than the season after the Epiphany the short season of Septuagesima is not as penitential as Lent. Although the colour violet is used at Mass the ministers do not wear folded chasubles but dalmatic and tunicle for these three Sundays and for ferial days. The organ is still played until Ash Wednesday. However, from Septuagesima until Holy Saturday the dress of some prelates changes. Cardinals of the Court of Rome no longer wear scarlet choir dress but that of violet. Correspondingly bishops do not wear violet choir dress but their black, or mourning dress. In the case of the latter this is not to be confused with their habitus pianus, or house dress. The black choir cassock has a train, like the violet one, and the mozzeta or mantelletum are faced with violet. However, Protonotaries Apostolic and Domestic Prelates do not change their choir dress (except sede vacante). The sixth Sunday after the Epiphany was anticipated yesterday.

At Vespers on Saturday afternoon the antiphons and psalms of Saturday were sung. The chapter was proper to Septuagesima Sunday and the Office hymn was Jam sol recedit igneus. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration was sung of the Seven Founders of the Servite Order. The Suffrage was omitted. (Anticipated Sundays do not have second Vespers). The Suffrage was omitted. At the end of Vespers Alleluia was added, twice, to both Benedicamus Domino and to its response. After that Alleluia will not be heard again until the Vesperal Liturgy of Holy Saturday. At Compline after the Lesser Doxology, and at all Hours until Compline on Holy Saturday, Laus tibi Domine Rex aeterne gloriae is sung in place of Alleluia. At Compline the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is Praeoccupemus and the Office hymn Primo die. The antiphons and psalms are as on previous 'green' Sundays. In the first nocturn the Incipit of the Book of Genesis is read. In the second nocturn the lessons are from the Enchiridion of St. Augustine, in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily from St. Gregory on the Gospel of the labourers in the vineyard. The Te Deum is not sung but in its place is sung a ninth responsory, Ubi est Abel frater tuus?.

At Lauds the 'second scheme' of psalms is sung: Pss 50, 117, 62, Canticle of the Three Children (Benedictus es) and 148. The antiphons at Lauds are proper to the Sunday as are the versicle after the hymn Aeterne, chapter, antiphon at the Benedictus and collect. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrage is sung.

At the Hours the antiphons and chapters are proper. At Prime the order of psalmody is changed and four psalms are sung, Pss. 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the usual first two stanzas of Ps. 118. Quicumque is omitted and the Dominical preces are sung.

At Mass the Gloria is omitted. The ministers wear violet dalmatic and tunicle. The second collect is A cunctis, the third collect is chosen by the Dean or rector. A Tract replaces the Alleluia after the Gradual, the Credo is sung and the Preface is of the Blessed Trinity. Benedicamus Domino is sung, by the deacon facing the altar, as the dismissal.

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday (109, 110, 111, 112 & 113) are sung. The Office hymn is Lucis creator. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration is are sung of the following feast of St. Valentine followed by the Suffrage. At Compline the Dominical preces are sung.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' there is no anticipation of the sixth Sunday after the Epiphany. At Vespers there were no commemorations. Mattins is reduced to a single nocturn. At Prime the arrangement of psalms is truly bizarre with the festal arrangment of Pss. 53, 118i, 118ii (!) The Dominical preces have been abolished. At Mass there is only one collect and Benedicamus Domino is suppressed in favour of Ite, missa est. At Vespers there are no commemorations nor Suffrage.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Saturday, 12 February 2022

Anticipated sixth Sunday after the Epiphany

 
Today is the anticipated sixth Sunday after the Epiphany. The Sunday is of semi-double rite and the liturgical colour is green. The Sunday follows the usual rules for Sundays in occurrence and concurrence.

Anticipated Sundays following the reform of 1911-13 gained far more prominence than they had hitherto exhibited. Prior to the reform they were treated in the same manner as 'resumed' Sundays in that they were of simple rite and had but three lessons at Mattins (those of the homily of the Sunday) and no Creed at Mass. If the Saturday before Septuagesima was occupied by a feast of nine lessons they could be anticipated on the nearest day free of a feast of nine lessons or, if there were no such days, commemorated in the feast of nine lessons falling on the Saturday.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons and psalms of Friday were sung. The Office hymn was that appointed for Friday Hominis superne Conditor sung with the Doxology and melody of the Incarnation, Jesu, tibi...Qui natus etc. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations were sung of the preceding feast of Our Lady of Lourdes and of the Seven Founders of the Servite Order. The Suffrages were omitted as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins the invitatory, hymn, antiphons and psalms are from the Psalter for Saturday. In the first nocturn the lessons are the Incipit of the Epistle to the Ephesians (from the sixth Sunday after the Epiphany. The lessons appointed for the Saturday the Incipit of the Epistle to Philemon having been anticipated on Thursday). The responsories are those of the anticipated Sunday. In the second nocturn the lessons, appointed for the Sunday are from St. Gregory's Book on Morals and in the third nocturn the homily is from St. Jerome on St. Matthew's Gospel. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the antiphons, psalms, chapter and hymn are from the Psalter for Saturday. The antiphon on the Benedictus and collect are proper to the Sunday. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration is sung of the Seven Founders of the Servite Order. The Suffrage is omitted. At Prime the chapter is Regi saeculorum. The Dominical preces are omitted.

At the other Hours the antiphons and psalms are of the Saturday, the collect is of the Sunday. Mass is sung after Terce as normal for Sundays. At Mass the Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Founders of the Servite Order. The Creed is sung and the preface is of the Blessed Trinity.

At Vespers the liturgical mood and colour change. The altar is vested in violet and Vespers are of Septuagesima. the antiphons and psalms of Saturday are sung. The Office hymn is Jam sol recedit igneus. After the collect of Septuagesima Sunday (the Office of the anticipated Sunday ceases after None) a commemoration is sung of the Founders of the Servite Order. The Suffrage is omitted due to the occurring double feast. Alleluia is added, twice, to both Benedicamus Domino and to its response. After that Alleluia will not be heard until the Vesperal Liturgy of Holy Saturday. At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' anticipated Sundays have been abolished. Today is the non-privileged III class feast of the Seven Founders of the Servite Order. The formerly double ranked feast is stripped down to a single nocturn and, following the latest decrees, made be replaced with a Votive Mass of any saint canonised after 1962. At Vespers of Septuagesima there are no commemorations.

Art: Jerome Nadal.