Monday, 30 November 2009
Continuing the 'revision' of how to say Canonical Hours originally 'dissected' last year today concludes with Prime before moving on later this week to look at Compline and Mattins. The Office of Prime was discussed previously here and here. Today's example will look at Prime for today's feast.
Prime basically has three forms: festal, Dominical and ferial. These differ mainly in their component psalms, chapters, short lessons and whether the preces, Dominical or ferial, are said. The festal form, as celebrated today, is perhaps the easiest form to start with.
Aperi, Domine etc followed by Pater noster, Ave Maria & Credo. Then Deus in adjutorium, Domine, ad adjuvandum, Lesser Doxology and Alleluia followed by the hymn Jam lucis orto sidere.
The fragment of the antiphon Salve, crux pretiosa (the first antiphon at Lauds is then used for Prime. The antiphons are proper for St. Andrew and found in the texts for November 30th) followed by Psalm 53. At the end of the psalm the Lesser Doxology then the first stanza of Psalm 118, Beati immaculati followed by Lesser Doxology and then the second stanza, Retribue servo tuo. After the Lesser Doxology after the last stanza the antiphon Salve, crux pretiosa is repeated in its entirety.
The chapter Regi saeculorum is then said followed by the short responsory Christe, Fili Dei vivi. In the responsory the versicle Qui venturus es in mundum is said as it is Advent. After a versicle and response the collect Domine, Deus omnipotens and the reading of the Martyrology although this is often omitted outside of Choir.
Then the versicle Pretiosa and its response, Mors Sanctorum ejus, followed (without the usual Oremus) by the collect Sancta Maria, Deus in adjutorium and its response is then sung three times. The Lesser Doxology is then sung followed by Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie.. a secret Pater noster and further short series of versicles and responses, again the Lesser Doxlogy and the collect Dirigere et sanctificare. Then Jube, Domine benedicere, the blessing Dies et actus and short lesson Isaias enim dicit (for St. Andrew) ending with Tu autem, Domine, miserere nobis and Deo gratias. Concluding the Hour of Prime Adjutorium nostrum, its response then Benedicite followed by its response Deus and the blessing Dominus nos benedicat... Amen. Then, if Terce does not follow, a final secret Pater noster.
Sunday, 29 November 2009
At Vespers the antiphons are proper. The Office hymn is Creator alme siderum. A commemoration of St. Saturninus is sung. However, the Suffrage is omitted for all of Advent. At Compline the Dominical preces are sung.
At Mattins the invitatory is Regem venturum and this is sung in the Dominical and ferial Offices until the third Sunday. The hymn is Verbum supernum and the antiphons are proper for Advent. In the first nocturn the lessons are the Incipit of the prophet Isaiah. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from the writing of St. Leo on the fast of the tenth month, the theme of which is preparing for the Coming and, in the third nocturn the homily is from St. Gregory continuing the theme with his commentary on St. Luke's Gospel about the end times. A ninth responsory is sung and the Te Deum omitted in the Office of Advent. At Lauds the antiphons sung at Vespers are again used, the hymn is En clara vox. A commemoration of St. Saturninus is sung but, as noted above, the Suffrage is omitted.
At Prime the first antiphon from Lauds is used with the usual Dominical psalms (117, 118(i), 118(ii)). In the short responsory the versicle Qui venturus es in mundum replaces Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris for all of Advent except when an occuring feast has a proper versicle. The Dominical preces are sung. At the other Hours the antiphons of Lauds are sung.
Mass is sung after Terce. For Advent the deacon and sub-deacaon do not wear dalmatic and tunicle but violet folded chasubles, an ancient feature of the Roman liturgy. The Gloria in not sung, the second collect is of St. Saturninus and the third collect of the BVM in Advent, Deus, qui de beate. The Creed is sung, the preface that of the Trinity and, as the Gloria was not sung, the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino.
At Vespers the liturgical colour and mood change as First Vespers of St. Andrew the Apostle are sung with a commemoration of the Sunday.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' no commemoration is made at Vespers on Saturday (and, of course, the antiphons are doubled etc). There are no preces at Compline. Mattins is cut down to just one nocturn of three lessons. At Lauds there is no commemoration of St. Saturninus who is omitted this year. At Prime there are no preces. At Mass the deacon wears the 'garment of joy' the dalamtic, and the sub-deacon the tunicle. There is only one collect and the dismissal is Ite, missa est. Vespers are of the Sunday, St. Andrew 'the first called' doesn't even get a mention.
Art: Jerome Nadal
Saturday, 28 November 2009
Terce, Sext and None all have the same structure comprising of introductory rites, the hymn, an antiphon fragment, three psalms (or sub-divisions of a psalm), antiphon, chapter, responsory, versicle and collect.
As today is the anticipated Vigil of St. Andrew the Apostle a set of prayers called the ferial preces are said at Lauds and the Horae Minorae. In Choir these prayers are said whilst kneeleing and, because also at Mass there are extended periods of kneeling such days are often referred to as 'kneeling days'. In Cathedral and Collegiate practice the Horae Minorae would normally be sung together as one service preceding the singing of Mass, which today is sung after None. For this post Prime will be omitted from the description and we will begin with Terce.
At Terce: The texts are found in the Breviary at 'Sabbato ad Tertiam'. Pater & Ave, Deus in adjutorium, Domine ad adjuvandum, Lesser Doxology, Alleluia. The hymn Nunc Sancte nobis Spiritus, the antiphon fragment (only) Clamor meus, followed by psalm divisions 101(i), 101(ii) and 101(iii). The Lesser Doxology is said after each of the three psalm divisions but the antiphon is only repeated after the last and then said in its entirety, Clamor meus...faciem tuam a me.
The chapter Sana me is then said followed by the responsory Sana animam meam etc. Following that the versicle and response, Adjutor meus esto & Neque despicias me. Then, because today is a Vigil the ferial preces are said. These are (now) a short series of Kyrie eleison etc, Pater noster and four versicles and their responses. Then follows the collect of the Vigil, Quaesumus, then Benedicamus Domino etc and Fidelium animae.
At Sext: Pater & Ave, Deus in adjutorium, Domine ad adjuvandum, Lesser Doxology, Alleluia. The hymn Rector potens verax Deus, the antiphon fragment (only) Domine, Deus meus, followed by psalm divisions 103(i), 103(ii) and 103(iii). The Lesser Doxology is said after each of the three psalm divisions but the antiphon is only repeated after the last and then said in its entirety, Domine, Deus meus, magnificatus es vehementer.
The chapter Nemini quidquam is then said followed by the responsory Benedicam Dominum etc. Following that the versicle and response, Dominus regit & In loco pascuae. Then, again, the ferial preces are said Kyrie eleison etc, Pater noster and four versicles and their responses. Then follows the collect of the Vigil, Quaesumus, then Benedicamus Domino etc and Fidelium animae.
At None: Pater & Ave, Deus in adjutorium, Domine ad adjuvandum, Lesser Doxology, Alleluia. The hymn Rerum Deus tenax vigor, the antiphon fragment (only) Ne tacueris Deus, followed by psalm divisions 108(i), 108(ii) and 108(iii). The Lesser Doxology is said after each of the three psalm divisions but the antiphon is only repeated after the last and then said in its entirety, Ne tacueris Deus, quia sermonibus odii circumdederunt me.
The chapter In timore is then said followed by the responsory Redime me, Domine etc. Following that the versicle and response, Ab occultis & Et ab alienis. Then, again, the ferial preces are said Kyrie eleison etc, Pater noster and four versicles and their responses. Then follows the collect of the Vigil, Quaesumus, then Benedicamus Domino etc and Fidelium animae.
Mass of the Vigil is then sung with the second collect Concede nos and third Ecclesiae. However after Mass in the afternoon Vespers remain in the liturgical colour violet for Advent Sunday, the subject of the next post.
Friday, 27 November 2009
Last year examples of Lauds were given here and here. Today's ferial Office will be examined as another example. It should be noted that in Choir Mattins and Lauds are always celebrated as one service with the exception of Christmas when Mattins precedes the first Mass and Lauds follow it. However, the previous examples and today's ferial Office will treat Lauds as a separate service for the purpose of explanation.
The Office is found in the section of the Breviary 'Feria Sexta ad Laudes I'. Lauds begins with (Pater & Ave) the introductory Deus in adjutorium, the response Domine, ad adjuvandum, the Lesser Doxology and Alleluia. The antiphon fragment (only) Exalate is said and then Psalm 98, Dominus regnavit, the Lesser Doxology and then the entire antiphon Exaltate Dominum...in monte sancto ejus is recited. The same pattern, antiphon fragment, psalm, Lesser Doxology and repitition of the entire antiphon is repeated for the remaining three psalms and OT Canticle.
After the repitition of the last antiphon the chapter Nox praecessit, hymn Aeterna caeli gloria and then the versicle Repleti sumus mane and the response Exsultavimus. The fragment (only) of the antiphon on the Benedictus, Per viscera misericordiae is said followed by the Benedictus, Lesser Doxology and the entire antiphon.
The collect from last Sunday is then said Excita, quaesumus. After that the Suffrage of the Saints is said. This is printed in the section of the Breviary 'Ordinarium divini Officii ad Laudes'. It consists of the antiphon Beata Die Genitrix, versicle Mirificavit, response Et exaudivit and the collect A cunctis nos.
Benedicamus Domino and Deo gratias follow. Then Fidelium animae.., Dominus det nobis suam pacem and its response and then Salve Regina, its versicle and collect etc.
Tomorrow we will revisit the Little Hours of Terce, Sext and None which due to the anticipated Vigil of St. Andrew have the ferial preces.
Wednesday, 25 November 2009
Anyone new to the Office is best advised to start with Vespers. The Office of Vespers is relatively straightforward and once familiar it is easy to move on to Lauds, the structure of which is essentially the same. Likewise the 'Little Hours' of Terce, Sext and None follow from Vespers and have the advantage of all sharing the same structure which is rather more simple than Vespers.
So to re-visit, Vespers was discussed here , here and here. Applying this to today the Ordo entry reads: V a cap seq, com praec et S Petri Alexandrini EM. This translates as 'Vespers is from the chapter of the following Office of St. Sylvester, with a commemoration of the preceding Office of St. Catharine and a commemoration of St Peter of Alexandria.'
(Note: Unless you have a Breviary or Antiphonale in front of you this post will be pretty much incomprehensible for what follows.)
Aperi Domine etc is said (if None doesn't immediately precede Vespers), then Pater & Ave followed by the usual introduction to the Hours of Vespers, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext and None: Deus in adjutorium, the response Domine, ad adjuvandum, Lesser Doxology and Alleluia.
The antiphons (doubled; i.e. the antiphon is said in its entirety both before and after the psalm) and psalms of 'Wednesday at Vespers' are then said. The chapter, Beatus vir, is from the Common of Confessor not Bishops (for St. Sylvester), the hymn Iste Confessor, the versicle Amavit eum and response Stolam gloriae. The antiphon on the Magnificat is Similabo eum (doubled) and the collect Clementissime Deus.
The commemorations are then made. (In most 'modern' editions of the Breviary this is made much easier as the relevant antiphons, versicles and collects are printed in the Sanctoral - it was not always thus and is indeed still more difficult to when trying to find the items in the Antiphonale or Vesperale.) So for St. Catharine we have Veni, Sponsa Christi, the versicle Diffusa est gratia, response Propterea benedixit and collect Deus, qui dedisti. For St. Peter the antiphon Iste Sanctus, the versicle Gloria et honore, response Constituisti and collect Infirmitatem nostram.
Then follows Benedicamus Domino etc and the closing of Vespers.
I will revisit Lauds and the Hours before Advent Sunday and look at Compline and Mattins next week.
Sunday, 22 November 2009
Today is the twenty-fifth and last Sunday after Pentecost. It is also the fifth Sunday of November, the last week of the liturgical year. It is of semi-double rite. The image above from Jerome Nadal depicts the coming of the Antichrist. The Gospel pericopes in the liturgy are from St. Matthew and concern the end times, the coming of Antichrist, concluding with the words of the LORD Caelum et terra transibunt, verba autem mea non praeteribunt. In the Breviary and Missal texts for today are actually taken today from the twenty-fourth Sunday. As was explained last week the number of sets of complete Mass formularies for Sundays after Pentecost is twenty-four but if there are more Sundays than that 'unused Sundays' after Epiphany are used in part.
At Mattins in the first nocturn the lesson are the Incipit of the Prophet Micheas and concern the coming of the LORD. In the second nocturn the lessons are from St. Basil's sermon on the thirty-third psalm on the Last Judgement. In the third nocturn (in the Breviary for the twenty-fourth and last Sunday after Pentecost) the homily is from the writings of St. Jerome on the abomination of desolation and the last times.
At Lauds a commemoration of St. Cecilia is sung. The Suffrage is omitted as St. Cecilia's feast is of double rite. At Prime Quicumque and the Dominical preces are omitted for the same reason.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, a commemoration of St. Cecilia is made. The Creed is sung and the preface is that of the Trinity.
At Vespers commemorations are sung of the following day's Office of St. Clement, of St. Cecilia and St. Felicity.
In 'the liturgical books of 1962' Mattins is cut down to one nocturn. No commemorations are made at Lauds or Vespers. St. Cecilia is omitted this year.
Saturday, 21 November 2009
Today is the feast of the Presentation of the Mother of God in the Temple. In contrast to the Byzantine East where the feast is counted as one of the Twelve Great Feasts, in the West the feast has generally held a lower rank and in the Roman rite is a greater-double. The feast was actually supressed by the Commission responsible for the Tridentine Missal of 1570 and was re-introduced by Sixtus V in 1585. The feast, as the 'Obalation of the BVM in the Temple' appears inter alia in several English Calendars before 1100 e.g. London British Library: Cotton Titus D.XXVII., 3r-8v and London British Library: Cotton Vitellius E.XVIII, 2r - 7v (this information comes from the interesting 'Saints in English Calendars before 1100', HBS, Vol CXVII).
First Vespers was celebrated on Friday, the antiphons and psalms being taken from the Common of the Office of the BVM. The antiphon at the Magnificat and collect are proper to the feast. The Doxology Jesu tibi sit gloria is sung at the conclusion of all hymns of Iambic metre in the Office.
At Mattins in the first nocturn the lessons are taken from the Common. (The Incipit of the Prophet Jonas was anticipated yesterday). In the second nocturn the lessons are from the writings of St. John of Damascus and St. Ambrose. In the third nocturn the homily is again taken from the Common with an adaptation made to the seventh responsory with the addition of tuam sanctam Praesentatione. At Lauds the antiphons are from the Common and the Sunday psalms are used. The antiphon on the Benedictus and collect are proper.
At Prime festal psalmody is used (53, 1181, 118ii) and the versicle Qui natus es sung in the short responsory. The short lesson is from the Common In plateis. Again at the Hours festal psalmody is sung.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria and Credo are sung and the preface is that of the BVM with the clause Et te in Praesentatione.
The feast yields in concurrence to the Sunday (as it is only greater-double). However the Office hymn, Jam sol recedit igneus, is sung to the Marian tone and has the Doxology noted above. The feast of the Presentation is commemorated and a commemoration of St. Cecilia VM is also sung.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the feast has been reduced to third class. There is but one nocturn the scriptural lessons being those of Saturday. Ferial psalmody is used throughout. There is no special tone for the hymns and no proper Doxology. The Creed is not sung at Mass. At Vespers there is neither commemoration of the Presentation or of St. Cecilia who is omitted this year.
The icon comes from an interesting website explaining the art and theology of icons.
Thursday, 19 November 2009
I have sent out two batches of Ordines this week and another batch will go tomorrow. There was a slight delay as I was feeling unwell at the beginning of the week.
It is very encouraging that there are a significant number of new customers this year. To those customers: Welcome and, hopefully, you will find the Ordo useful and of value to your spiritual life. Last year I started a series of 'How to' posts on the Hours which I will re-publish and extend in the next weeks which may be of some help if you are new to the traditional Office.
I trust customers who have received their Ordo are pleased with the improvements on last year's edition. The cover is more durable this year and almost back to the elegance of the design Gavin Stamp produced for Ordo 1986. An expert Latinist also kindly joined the proof-reading team and a number of amenments have been made perhaps most noticeably the replacement of the very new rite 'Praef Dom' with 'Praef Trin' as found in old ordines.
To existing customers thank you too for your repeat business. Some of the email reminders I sent out a month ago 'bounced'. Please check firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your safe senders list. I have had some problems too with my ISP and am looking to change provider for a more reliable service.
If you have not by now had an email, or the paper reminder, something has gone wrong. Please download the order form and send it as soon as you can so your order can be sent before the Christmas post.
It is possible that Royal Mail staff may take official, or otherwise, action nearer the peak time so please send your order now.
Saturday, 14 November 2009
At Vespers yesterday commemorations were sung of the preceding Office and of St. Albert the Great. As both feasts are doubles the Suffrage was not sung nor were the preces sung at Compline.
At Mattins in the first nocturn the Incipit of the book of the Prophet Osee is read. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from St. Augustine's Book on the City of God. In the third nocturn the homily is from the writing of St. Jerome and is that given for the sixth Sunday after the Epiphany which, this year, was not celebrated before Septuagesima.
Both the Breviary and Missal give rubrics after the twenty-third Sunday indicating what text to use if there are more than twenty-four Sundays after Pentecost, dependant of course on the date of Easter. This year there are twenty-five and so, following the rubrics the texts for the twenty-fourth Sunday are actually used next Sunday as it is the last Sunday after Pentecost. Today the rubrics direct the use of the texts of the sixth Sunday after Epiphany. At Mattins the homily for these 'unused Sundays' are different as are the antiphons for the Gospel canticles at Lauds and Vespers. However at Mass the introit, gradual, offertory and communion are all identical with those sung on the twenty-third Sunday. The collect, epistle and Gospel are proper to each 'unused' Sunday.
At Lauds a commemoration of St. Albert the Great is sung. At Prime the Dominical preces are omitted due to the occurring double feast.
Mass is sung after Terce. The introit, as noted above, is Dicit Dominus.., the Gloria is sung, the second collect is of St. Albert the Great. The Creed is sung and the preface that of the Holy Trinity.
At Vespers a commemoration of the following feast of St. Gertrude is sung and of St. Albert the Great. At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted.
In the 'ancient use' of the 1960s neither Vespers has any commemorations of concurrent Offices. Mattins is cut down to one nocturn, there are no commemorations at Lauds. Mass has one collect and St. Albert the Great is omitted this year.
Monday, 9 November 2009
(Pendant reliquaries in Rubricarius' collection of Relics)
Rubricarius is feeling very contrite and ashamed of himself.
A few days ago I made a comment in response to a reader about the antiquity of the Vigil of All Saints and I said that it was fourteenth century. Mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa and may I be forgiven for this perncious error. Often when looking quickly for historical information on feasts I consult one of the Supplements produced by the 1948 Commission for General Liturgical Reform: Memoria sulla riforma liturgica: Supplemento III Materiale Storico, Agiografico, Liturgico per la Riforma del Calendario. This was published in 1951 in Rome.
On page 140 there is the entry (below) stating that the Vigil appeared during the fourteenth century, which I stupidly took at face value when I replied to 'Gem of the Ocean'.
At the weekend I spent twenty minutes taking a cursory glance at some of the volumes from the Henry Bradshaw Society publications in my library and noted the following:
Vol CIX, 'The Winchcombe Sacramentary', 10th century, p. 197 - Vigil of All Saints
Vol CVII, 'The Durham Collectar', 10th century, p. 194 - Vigil of All Saints
Vol CI, 'Fulda Sacramentary', 10th century, p. 159 - Vigil of All Saints
Vol CXVI, 'Sacramentary of Ratoldus', 10th century, p.360 - Vigil of All Saints
Vol CX, 'Sacramentary of Echternach', 10th century, p. 309 - Vigil of All Saints
Vol CXIV, 'The Leofric Missal', 10/11th century, p. 200 - Vigil of All Saints
Vols I, V & XII, 'The Westminster Missal', which is 14th century(!), col. 986 - Vigil of All Saints
Vol XI, 'The Missal of Robert of Jumieges', 10/11th century, p.221 - Vigil of All Saints
Vol XCIV, 'The Bec Missal', 13th century, p. 209 - Vigil of All Saints
Clearly, the Vigil was established by at least the tenth century. So we can draw the conclusion that a secret papal Commission established to plot out a reform of the liturgy either couldn't afford a subscribtion to the HBS and didn't have access to the manuscript rooms of the world's libraries (despite sitting on top of one), or, to say the very least, that a little cheating, or more than a little, went on to justify the implementation of their reforms.
I really should go through the Commission's published works in some detail with a critical eye. Indeed several years ago my late friend Gregory Woolfenden at a lunch was perusing these documents of Pius XII's Commission and coming out with remarks such as "Bloody Hell - Domincae per annum! When was this written?" between copious imbibing, as was his style. "You need to get off your ar*e, stop wasting time on the Internet, and publish some of your researches."
I should really take that, very good, advice on board as a penance for insulting, through laziness, the Vigil of All Saints.
Sunday, 8 November 2009
Today is the twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost and the third Sunday of November. It is also the Octave Day of All Saints. If the second Sunday of November falls after November 5th it, and the following week, are omitted and the third Sunday celebrated. (In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the second Sunday and its week are always omitted.) The Gospel is from St. Matthew and is the account of the LORD rasing Jairus's daughter from the dead.
At Vespers yesterday the antiphon on the Magnificat was Muro tuo of the Saturday before the third Sunday. Commemorations were sung of the Octave Day of All Saints and the Four Crowned Martrys.
At Mattins in the first nocturn the Incipit of the book of Daniel the Prophet is read. In the second nocturn the lessons are from the Book on Virgins by St. Athanasius and in the third nocturn the homily is from St. Jerome. At Lauds commemorations are sung of the Octave Day and the Four Crowned Martyrs.
At Prime both Quicumque and the Dominical preces are omitted because of the Octave Day.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Octave Day, the third of the Four Crowned Martrys. The Creed is sung and the preface that of the Trinity.
Vespers are first Vespers of the Dedication of the Lateran Basilica with commemorations of the Sunday and the Octave Day.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Mattins is chopped down to one nocturn of three lessons. There is no commemoration of the Octave Day - as the Octave has been abolished, neither is there any commemoration of the Four Crowned Martyrs. Vespers are of the Sunday without even a commemoration of the dedication festival.
Thursday, 5 November 2009
The Office is as on the feast except that ferial psalmody is used and, of course, the antiphons for the psalms are not doubled. At Mattins the first nocturn lessons are from the prophet Ezechiel, the begining of his book having been transferred from Sunday to Monday. In the second nocturn SS Bede, Bernard and Chrysostom provide the lessons and in the third nocturn the homilies are from St. Augustine.
At Mass the proper Gaudeamus is sung with Gloria and Creed. The second collect is of the Holy Ghost, Deus, qui corda and the third for the Church or pope.
On Tuesday the prescribed Mass was of the 'resumed Sunday' celebrated in green without Gloria and Creed with the second collect of the Octave and the third Deus, qui corda. With no Gloria the dismissal was Benedicamus Domino. 'Private' Masses on Monday were permitted of the Octave with a commemoration of the resumed Sunday and third collect Deus, qui corda.
On Wednesday the feast of St. Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, was celebrated as a double. The Octave was commemorated at Vespers, Lauds and Mass and a commemoration made of SS Vitalis and Agricola.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' fourth class ferial days replace the former days once graced by the celebration of the Octave. St. Charles is reduced to a third class feast of three lessons. On Saturday the Saturday celebration of the BVM takes place.
Monday, 2 November 2009
At Mattins the psalms are those used for Mattins of the Dead but the lessons are mostly proper to the day. At Lauds psalm 50, Miserere, is the first psalm and the rest from the Office of the Dead. The collect of the day is Fidelium.
The Little Hours have a special form. At Prime the Office begins after the silent recitation of the Pater, Ave and Credo with psalms 87, 27 & 31 without antiphons. Although the Miserere is sung at Lauds the displaced psalm is not transferred to Prime as on other days. At the reading of the Martyrology a special preamble is read, Hac die Commemoratio Omnium Fidelium Defunctorum..., before the announcement of the next day Tertio Nonas Novembris. Luna quintadecima etc. The psalms are sung either to the tone in directum or to a tone introduced with the Office of All Souls Day. Terce follows a similar, simplified, form and has psalms 37i, 37ii & 55. Sext psalms 69, 84 & 85 and None psalm 101 divided into three sections. The Office of the day ends with None.
In the Universal Church three Masses may be celebrated by every priest on this day. (The practice was first observed in Spain with an indult from Benedict XIV). This privilege was extended to the Universal Church by Benedict XV in 1915. The accepted practice of Collegiate churches is for the first Mass to be celebrated after Lauds, the second after Prime and the third after None. In all three Masses the sequence Dies irae is sung and the preface of the Dead is sung. Common practice is to have the Absolution of the Dead at a catafalque after the principal Mass.
Vespers are for the third day within the Octave of All Saints.
The above is in some ways a novelty. Prior to the 1911-13 reform the Office of the day was that of the second day within the Octave of All Saints. In addition to the Office of the day Vespers, Mattins and Lauds of the Dead were sung as they were on other days, namely the Mondays of Advent and Lent and the first 'free' day of each month. In parish churches a Requiem for the Dead was sung (the first of the current three) but in Cathedral and Collegiate churches two High Masses were sung one of the Octave of All Saints and a Requiem. The Office of the Dead was often celebrated as a 'Vigil' consisting of Vespers followed by Mattins and Lauds. This of course has an exact parallel in Slav-Byzantine parish worship where the aggregate of Vespers, Mattins & Lauds (and Prime) is celebrated on Saturday evenings and the eves of great feasts. With the 1911-13 reform the second day within the Octave disappeared and All Souls' Day was given a proper Office. Mattins of the Dead had a re-arrangement of lessons appointed for the day. Little Hours of the Dead were created based roughly on the Office of the Triduum. Compline, on the evening of All Saints after the double Vespers has psalms 122, 141 & 142 and the collect Propitiare quaesumus adapted from the secret of the Mass in die obitus. The other Little Hours have the psalmody described above.
In 'the liturgical books of 1962' the sequence Dies irae may be omitted in the second and third Masses when they are not sung. The last Gospel is omitted when the Absolution takes place. Vespers are of the Dead as these are no longer sung in their traditional place, after Vespers of the day yesterday. Compline of the Dead is transferred from yesterday to today.
Sunday, 1 November 2009
The feast of All Saints is a double of the first class with an octave. The feast developed from the dedication of the Pantheon to St. Mary and the Martyrs. This dedication took place on May 13th 610. In some places, and the in Byzantine East to this day, a celebration of All Saints took place after Trinity. The celebration of the feast spread and Gregory IV transferred the feast and dedication to November 1st in 835. Louis the Pious spread the celebration throughout his empire and the feast entered the Universal Calendar. Sixtus IV gave the feast an octave in the fifteenth century.
At Mattins the invitatory and hymn are proper, the antiphons and psalms taken from the Office of Martyrs, the lessons in the first nocturn are taken from the book of the Apocalypse. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from a sermon of the Venerable Bede. In the third nocturn the homily on the Gospel is from St. Augustine. The ninth lesson is from the homily for the Twenty-Second Sunday after Pentecost.
At Lauds the antiphons are those used at Vespers and the Sunday psalms are sung. A commmeoration of the Sunday is sung.
Prime has the festal psalms (53, 118i, 118ii) and the lectio brevis is proper, Benedictio et claritas.
Mass is sung after Terce. The Asperges is sung, it being Sunday. The Mass has the Gloria and a commemoration of the Sunday. The Creed is sung and the preface is that of Blessed Trinity as the Sunday is commemorated. The last Gospel is of the Sunday, not In principio.
At second Vespers the psalms are those used for Apostles but the fifth psalm is Ps. 115, Credidi. A commemoration of the Sunday is sung. After Benedicamus Domino the verse Fidelium is omitted and the choirs sits as the festive dressing of the altar is removed and the liturgical mood swings from joy to deepest mourning. Vespers of the Dead are then sung.
In the 'liturgical books of 1962' most of the rite remains as it was. However, there is no ninth lesson at Mattins. At Mass there is no proper last Gospel. Vespers of All Saints are sung but not Vespers of the Dead as they, rather strangely, get treated as Vespers of All Soul's Day.