Wednesday 29 April 2009

The Solemnity of St. Joseph

Today is the Solemnity of St. Joseph Sponse of the Blessed Virgin. It is a double of the first class and has an octave. The feast was introduced into the Universal Kalendar by Pius IX in 1847 as the 'Patronage of St. Joseph' as a double of the second class to be celebrated on the third Sunday after Easter. In 1870 the feast was raised to a double of the first class and given an octave with 'Patron of the Church' added. In 1911 the feast was renamed the Solemnity of St. Joseph and became a primary double of the first class. In 1913 the celebration was moved to the Wednesday after the second Sunday after Easter. Although relatively modern the feast is a fine example of typology with the Patriarch Joseph being used as a 'type' of the foster-father of the LORD.

The feast began with first Vespers yesterday afternoon. Vespers were proper and without any commemorations. The Office is proper. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the book of Genesis and ar eslightly extended in comparison with St. Joseph's 19 March feast. In the second nocturn the lessons are from a sermon on St. Joseph by St. Bernardine of Siena and in the third nocturn the homily is from St. Augustine on the Gospel fragment from St. Luke. A commemoration of St. Peter the Martyr is made at Lauds and private Mass.

Mass follows Terce and is proper, with the introit Adjutor. The Gloria and Creed are sung and the preface is that of St. Joseph. In second Vespers a commemoration is made of the following Office of St. Catharine of Siena.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Solemnity of St. Joseph does not exist as this beautiful feast was shamefully supressed in 1956. So,instead, St. Peter the Martyr is kept as a third class feast, without first Vespers, just one nocturn at Mattins etc. Interesting to see what happened to the Church after its Patron's feast was scrapped...

Sunday 26 April 2009

The Second Sunday after Easter

The Second Sunday after Easter is of semi-double rite. The Sunday is often called Good Shepherd Sunday as the Gospel at Mattins and Mass is the account of the LORD telling the Pharisees that He is the Good Shepherd who knows His sheep and will lay down His life for them. The Sunday was commemorated in the Second Vespers of St. Mark the Evangelist along with SS Cletus and Marcellinus.

At Mattins the invitatory is Surrexit Dominus and the hymn Rex sempiterne Caelitum is sung. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the Acts of the Apostles, in the second nocturn the lessons are from a sermon of St. Leo on the Ascension and in the third nocturn a homily on the Gospels by St. Gregory the Great. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds a commemoration of SS Cletus and Marcellinus is made and then the Commemoration of the Cross is sung. This Commemoration takes the place of the Suffrage of the Saints in the time after Epiphany and Pentecost. The Commemoration of the Cross consists of the antiphon Crucifixus surrexit a mortuis..., a versicle and response and the collect Deus, qui pro nobis Filium...sequamur.

At Prime the Dominical preces are sung. Hymns of Iambic metre of course have the Paschaltide Doxology Deo Patri sit gloria etc. Mass follows Terce.

At Mass the Gloria is sung, the second collect is of SS Cletus and Marcellinus, the third collect Concede nos (of the BVM in Paschaltide). The Creed is sung and the preface is that of Paschaltide.

In Vespers a commemoration is made of the following feast of St. Peter Canisius and of SS Cletus and Marcellinus. The Commemoration of the Cross is not sung because of the commemorated double feast of St. Peter. Likewise the preces are not sung at Compline.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Mattins is cut to one nocturn, as usual. SS Cletus and Marcellinus get ignored (save of course an entry in yesterday's Martyrology). The Commemoration of the Cross is suppressed. The Hymns of the Little Hours do not have the Paschal Doxology. There is only one collect at Mass and at Vespers there are no commemorations.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Wednesday 22 April 2009

New New Holy Week

The writer of a comment asked what differences there were between the 1962 version of Holy Week and the 1970-2002 form. The services are, structurally, essentially the same as the 1955-1962 ones with some 'tweaking'; Holy Saturday has though undergone more of a structural change. Briefly, as follows:

Palm Sunday, as we would call it, has changed from 'Second Sunday of the Passion' to 'Passion Sunday'. Red is used for both the blessing of Palms and mass. So one has a Sunday Mass in red without a Gloria - very strange. The blessing of Palms is essentially the same as in 1962 but there is the option to use another collect from the Tridentine rite, Auge fidem. The procession is somewhat shortened with the Pueri antiphons sung in procession interpolated with pss. 23 and 46 (as in 1962 but now sung in the procession). Gloria laus and Ingrediente are sung but none of the other antiphons. On reaching the altar even the Kyrie is missed out. The liturgy gains an OT reading from Isaiah. Christus factus est is sung as a gradual. St. Matthew's Passion (if Year A occurs!) is restored to the full version as in the Tridentine rite. A proper preface is sung. The Passions of St. Mark and St. Luke are sung in Years B and C.

The Passions are no longer sung on Tueday and Wednesday (anciently the Passions were all read during the Triduum but that practice was not restored). Tenebrae in any recognisable form has gone and the Liturgia Horarum gives proper texts for the Office each day.

On Maundy Thursday things are very similar to 1962 but an OT reading is added. The Mandatum takes place after the homily, the Creed is not sung - again as in 1962. The Agnus Dei is sung as in the Tridentine rite the third miserere nobis having been dropped. Adoration, in a 'non-solemn' form may however take place after midnight unlike 1962.

On Good Friday red Eucharstic vestments are used rather than the ministers entering in just albs and stoles. Red was used in many of the medieval rites and the Ambrosian rite. In the medieval rites the red was 'Passiontide' or 'ox-blood' red, a dull crimson shade not the bright red used for feasts of martyrs. The ministers enter the church vested in chauble, dalmatic and tunicle (subdeacons disappearing from 1974). Christus factus est is used as a Gospel acclamation and the Passion according to St. John sung. During the Solemn Orations the prayer for rulers gets moved to later, a prayer for the unity of Christians replaces the prayer for unity of the Church, the prayer for the conversion of the Jews becomes a prayer for the Jews hoping they remain faithful to their convenant(!), and the prayers for the conversion of pagans becomes a prayer for those who do not believe in Christ and for those who do not believe in God. The adoration of the Cross is essentially the same as in 1962 (veiled in red to match the vestments when I saw the service in 1984), Crucem tuam adoremus in no longer sung. The communion service is the same except there is no change of colour of the vestments. Quia tuum is added the Confiteor etc omitted. Of the three prayers from in the 1962 rite only two are said, the wording slightly changed.

On Holy Saturday unveiling takes place before the Vigil and the ministers wear white throughout. A new prayer for blessing the fire is used, the ceremonies of inscribing the Paschal candle have become optional. Seven OT lessons are provided (although they do not all have to be read) rather than the four in 1962. Following the collect after the last OT lesson the altar candles are lit and the Gloria sung. After the Gospel the Litany is sung and a procession to the baptistry made (if in sight of the people) and the font blessed. Baptisms then take place. To be fair there has been a restoration of the ancient Scrutinies throughout Lent culminating in baptisms at the Vigil, its original function - so one has to give a mark for that! There is no fragmenting of the Litany and the mass continues after Vidi aquam.

A friend of Rubricarius at one time was an MC at the Brompton Oratory in London. One year he went to MC a 1962 rite Triduum at Ware (much against Rubicarius' counsel). After the 1962 Triduum this man thought the Oratory Triduum actually far better. He had never had the Grace to see the Tridentine form alas.

Sunday 19 April 2009

Dominica in Albis - 'Low Sunday'

Low Sunday is the first Sunday after Easter. It is a greater double of the first class. It is the Sunday when anciently the neophytes laid aside the white robes they had been clothed in after Baptism. For many Eastern Christians today is holy Pascha following the Julian Calendar - Xристос воскресе!

At Vespers yesterday the five psalms were sung under one antiphon, Alleluia. Chapters and hymns returned to the Office and at Vespers the hymn Ad regias Agni dapes was sung. The double Alleluia is no longer sung after Benedicamus Domino. At Compline and the hours the Paschaltide Doxology is sung: Deo Patri sit gloria, Et Filio qui a mortuis, Surrexit ac Paraclito, In sempiterna saecula.

At Mattins the invitatory is Surrexit Dominus, as for Easter and its Octave, and the hymn Rex sempiterne Caelitum is sung. In each nocturn the psalms are sung under one antiphon. In the first nocturn scripture lessons are from St. Paul's letter to the Colossians, the second nocturn lessons are a sermon from St. Augustine on the close of the Paschal Octave and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Gregory the Great. The Te Deum is sung after the ninth lesson.

At Lauds again the psalms are sung under one antiphon, a triple Alleluia. Before the 1911-13 reform this antiphon consisted of nine Alleluias and was an ancient practice. After the chapter the hymn Aurora caelum purpurat is sung. At the Little Hours the psalms are, as usual, sung under one antiphon this in Paschaltide being Alleluia. At Prime Ps. 117 is sung followed by the first two stanzas of Ps. 118.

At Mass the Gloria is sung, there is one collect (in local calendars an occurring feast would be commemorated), the Credo is sung and the preface is that of Paschaltide. The Gospel pericope is St. John's account of the risen LORD appearing to His disciples in the locked room and 'doubting' St. Thomas.

Vespers are of the Sunday with the psalms sung under one antiphon, Alleluia.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Mattins is cut down to one nocturn of three lessons. The Paschaltide Doxology is not sung at the hymns of the Little Hours. At Mass there is a change to one word in the introit as 'rationabile' replaced 'rationabiles' in the 1953 edition of the Roman Missal. Mons. Bugnini wrote an interesting article on the changes introduced to this edition: vide Bugnini, A., 'Editio VI post typicam Missalis Romani' in Ephemerides Liturgicae 67 (1953) pp. 46-61.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Wednesday 15 April 2009

Paschal Mattins and the Octave

The high point of Holy Week in most medieval rites, and certainly in the Byzantine rite to this day (or, to be pedantic, this Saturday evening!) was the celebration of Paschal Mattins - Mattins of the Resurrection of the LORD.

In typical English praxis, such as Sarum, the Lenten array was removed from the statues and images after Compline on Holy Saturday. Before the bells rang out for Mattins the clergy went to the Sepulchre and then the Cross was 'raised' to the singing of the antiphon Christus resurgens. A ceremony of adoration of the Cross, just as on Good Friday morning, took place before a triumphal procession around the church. I shall write some more about the ceremonies of 'elevatio' in due course but it is interesting to note that they still take place, despite the liturgical heteropraxis of the last sixty years, in part of Eastern Europe. An example from contemporary Germany (Heilege Grab - the Holy Grave) may be found here and I am grateful to a friend from Poland for sending me this synopsis of Polish Sepulchres. Of pariticular note is that the Polish editions of the liturgical books had 'depositio' ceremonies and the corresponding 'elevatio' ones printed as part of the rites until very recently (e.g. Cantionale Ecclesiasticum, Cracow, 1925 in my collection).

Roman rite Mattins was sung on Saturday evening (and of course on other days within the Octave). The solemn tone is used for Deus in adjutorium. The invitatory is Surrexit Dominus vere Alleluia and psalm 94 is sung to a lovely tone 6. Mattins consists of one nocturn. The Gospel fragment is St. Mark 16: 1-7 and is followed by a homily of St. Gregory the Great. The two responsories Angelus Domini descendit and Cum transisset sabbatum are famous and intimately connected with the Quem quaeritis ceremonies and indeed the development of Western drama (vide the excellent book: Hardison, O.B., 'Christian Rite and Christian Drama in the Middle Ages', The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965). During the second responsory the cantors and the celebrant don copes the principal one pre-intones the Te Deum. The Te Deum is then sung and, where it is the custom the bells ring throughout. Lauds follow immediately and have a series of beautiful antiphons: Angelus autem Domini, Et ecce terraemotus, Erat autem, Prae timore autem ejus and Respondens autem Angelus all taking up the theme of the Angels, earthquake and empty tomb. The chapter, hymn, versidel and response are replaced by the Haec dies. If one has the opportunity listen to the setting by the English composer John Sheppard do so (Hyperion CDD22021). After Haec dies the altar is censed in the usual manner at the Benedictus and the solemn Regina Caeli sung at the end of Lauds.

The Hours for Pascha and its octave have a special form. They do not have antiphons but the psalms are sung to a haunting Tone2. Again the hymn etc. are replaced by. At Prime the Martyrology is resumed after its absence during the Triduum. Before the entries for the following day the following is sung to the Passion tone: Hac die, quam fecit Dominus, Solemnitas solemnitatum, et Pascha nostrum: Resurrectio Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi secundum carnem. The day, moon etc then are announced as normal.

Mass follows Terce. At the aspersion Vidi aquam is sung and water taken from the font the previous day used. At Mass the Gloria is sung, the sequence Victimae Paschali precedes the Gospel, the Credo is sung, the Paschal preface and the Communicantes and Hanc igitur are proper.

Vespers are of the feast with the same antiphons as sung at Lauds. In many uses a procession was made to the font during Vespers and it is common to find texts in books marked ad fontes. Somewhat ironically the editio typica of the Caeremoniale Episcoporum published in 1985 has a rubric (371) authorising Baptismal Vespers where it is the custom although no texts are given. There is evidence that in Rome a particularly solemn form of Baptismal Vespers took place with some antiphons so ancient they were never translated from the original Greek.

Both Monday and Tuesday in the Octave are doubles of the first class and the liturgy is essentially the same as that of Sunday with proper texts. Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday are semidouble days within a privileged octave. The antiphons are not doubled at Mattins, Lauds and Vespers and at Mass the second collect is for the Church or of an occurring feast.

Resting - but, thankfully, not (yet) in my tomb!

Rubricarius is suffering from 'post-Triduum fatigue syndrome' so is taking a short break before, retrospectively, blogging on Paschal Mattins.

Meanwhile some extremely interesting reading suggestions.

The excellent series by Signor Gregory DiPippo. Quite the finest thing I have read about the deforms in a long time by an outstanding practitioner:

On the reform of blessing of Palms on Palm Sunday.

The reform of the Masses of Palm Sunday and the first three days of Holy Week.

The reform of Maundy Thursday.

The reform of Good Friday here and here.

The reform of Tenebrae.

The reform of Holy Saturday here and here.

And the very lastest on the reform, or rather abolition, of the Vigil of Pentecost here.

Two articles on the Ceremonies of Maundy Thursday and Good Friday in the Papal Court of Pius XI posted on the New Liturgical Movement. It is sad that these photographs are not in colour as the pope would be seen in red on Good Friday, the cardinals in their 'winter violet' choir dress and the cardinal-celebrant and cardinal-ministers in black vestments for the Mass of the Pre-Sanctified.

Finally, a series of posts by Fr. Anthony Cekada on the Holy Week reforms. Fr. Cekada rightly points out the embryonic 'cult of the chair' to be found in the revisions.

Saturday 11 April 2009

Sabbato Sancto - Holy Saturday

Holy Saturday is double of the first class.

'Hora competenti toblaeis cooperiuntur Altaris, sed candelae exsintictae manent usque ad principium Missae. Interim excutitur ignis de lapide foris ecclesiam, et ex eo accenduntur carbones. Dicta Nona in Choro, Sacerdos indutus Amictu, Alba, Cingulo, Stola, et Pluviali violaceo, vel sine Casula, astantibus sibi Ministris cum Cruce, aqua benedicta, et incenso, ante portam ecclesiae, si commode potest, vel in ipso aditu ecclesiae benedicit novem ignem, dicens:'

Missale Romanum, rubric pro loco for Holy Saturday.

On Holy Saturday morning the altar is dressed and vested as in the photograph above. A violet antependium is placed over a white one in such a manner that it may easily be removed later. Six candles of bleached wax remain unlit for the Hours.

The Hours are chanted as for the previous two days with the exception that choir reverences are omitted because of the unveiled Cross on the altar. As at Tenebrae yesterday evening Propter quod et Deus etc is added to Christus factus est.

After None is completed (or, in Pontifical functions celebrated by the Ordinary after Sext when the New Fire is blessed) the ministers of the Mass (celebrant in violet stole and cope; ministers in violet folded chasubles) go to the church door where the New Fire is blessed. A fire is lit and charcoal placed on it for liturgical use. The celebrant then sings three collects of blessing of the fire and one for the grains of incense. The charcoal is put in the thurible and incense blessed as usual. The deacon then changes from a violet folded chasuble for a white dalmatic. (When the celebrant is not assisted by deacon and subdeacon the celebrant himself exchanges his violet cope for a white dalmatic as in the photograph below of Dr. Glover). Either the deacon or the celebrant takes a reed (bamboo cane = Arundinaria) with a triple candle with its branches arranged 'triangulo distinctis'. A procession is formed with acolytes bearing the five grains of incense to be inserted into the Paschal Candle and thurible followed by the subdeacon carrying the cross, followed by the choir, then the deacon with the reed and finally the celebrant.

[Note. The above is a photograph of a stained glass window in Kesgrave church showing the Procession into church on Holy Saturday morning. The subdeacon carrying the cross is wearing a folded chasuble and the deacon, in white dalmatic, the triple candle atop the reed followed by the celebrant. I am grateful to Mr. Alan Robinson for showing me this wonderful image.]

The procession pauses three times as it enters the church progressing towards the altar. Each time one of the wicks of the candle being lit from a taper bearing the new fire, the deacon (or celebrant) proclaims Lumen Christi and the choir responds Deo gratias.

When the procession reaches the altar due reverences are made and the deacon (who passes the reed to an acolyte) takes the Evangeliarium containing the Exsultet from the mensa and receives a blessing from the celebrant as when about to proclaim the Gospel at Mass. The deacon then goes with the lesser ministers to the Gospel side of choir where the book is placed on a lectern and censed. The deacon then sings the Exsultet pausing to insert the grains of incense into the Paschal Candle after the words curvat imperia. He then continues 'In hujus igitur noctis gratia, suscipe, sancte Pater, incensi hujus sacrificium vespertinum..' When he reaches 'rutilans ignis accendit' he again pauses and lights the Paschal Candle with one of the branches of triple candle. When the words 'apis mater eduxit' are sung an acolyte takes the fire from the triple candle and lights the lamps in the church. After the Exsultet the deacon takes off the white dalmatic and exchanges it for a violet stole, maniple and folded chasuble. The celebrant removes his cope and puts on a violet maniple and chasuble. The ministers then go to the altar and to the Epistle corner as at the introit of Mass.

The celebrant reads the twelve prophecies (these derive from the ancient Jerusalem practice c.f. Talley). In the middle of choir lectors chant each prophecy. After each (except the twelfth) the celebrant sings Oremus, the deacon Flectamus genua and the subdeacon Levate. Tracts follow the fourth, eighth and eleventh prophecy. The twelfth prophecy may be sung to one of several special tones (pace Signor Martinucci).

After the twelfth prophecy if the church has a font the celebrant again dons a violet cope and a procession is formed to the Baptistery whilst Sicut cervus is sung. In the Baptistery the font is hallowed by the celebrant singing a preface of blessing culminating in the Paschal Candle being plunged into the waters of the font three times and Chrism being infused into the waters. Here baptisms are carried out. Anciently this liturgy was when adults were baptised and the prophecies were the last catechumenal address. More in a separate post later on this and its significance.

The ministers leave the Baptistery and the cantors start the Litany of the Saints. As in all processional litainies the invocations are doubled i.e. the invocation and petition is sung by the cantors and repeated by the choir. On their return to the sanctuary the celebrant and ministers remove their cope and chasubles and prostrate before the altar. At Peccatores, te rogamus audi nos they rise and leave the sanctuary to vest for Mass whilst the Litany continues. Meanwhile acolytes remove the violet altar frontal (and violet humeral veil over the credence etc), light the altar candles and prepare the altar for Mass.

The celebrant, deacon and subdeacon return to choir, now vested in white, as the choir sings the Kyrie. The celebrant says Judica me etc and the altar is then censed as at the beginning of any High Mass. At the Gloria in excelsis the bells are rung as on Maundy Thursday. Before the Gradual the celebrant sings Alleluia solemnly three times. At the Gospel the acolytes carry do not carry candles. There is no Creed or Offertory chant.

In the Paschal preface the clause in hac potissimum nocte is sung. The Communicantes and Hanc igitur are proper. The Agnus Dei is not sung and there is no Pax. Instead of a communion antiphon Alleluia is sung three times as an antiphon to Psalm 116. This has the Doxology and the Alleluia is repeated. The celebrant then intones the antiphon Vespere autem sabbati which the choir continues. The Magnificat is then sung and the altar, choir and people censed. After the repitition of the antiphon the celebrant sings the Post-communion and collect for Vespers Spiritum nobis. Mass then ends as usual the dismissal being Ite, missa est, alleluia, alleluia.

A cardinal celebrant of Holy Saturday enters church weaing a violet cappa magna but leaves it wearing a red one. In the late afternoon Compline is sung at its normal time. At Compline Noctem quietam etc is sung at the beginning. However the psalms are sung without antiphon to a special Tone2 (an introduction following the 1911-13 reform that I know little about). The hymn, chapter and short responsory are omitted and the fragment of Vespere autem sabbati is intoned before the Nunc dimittis is sung. The antiphon is repeated and Visita quaesumus returns as the collect. After the blessing Regina Caeli is intoned with its versicles and collect.

Paschal Mattins will be discussed in the next post.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Holy Saturday is the 'Mark 3' version of the new order. In 1951 the 'Vigil' was restored ad experimentum. The new order Mark1 had Mattins and Lauds in the morning of Holy Saturday, with omission of the Miserere and a new collect, Concede. A new Vespers was created using the Vespers for the preceeding two days with new first antiphon and antiphon on the Magnificat. Compline was said as on Good Friday evening but without Christus factus est but with the collect Visita. For the Vigil the ministers wore folded chasubles. There is a single collect of blessing the fire and the grains of incense are stuck into the Paschal candle outside of the church. Veniat, quesumus is used to bless the candle (with the word cereum added) and it, not the reed, is carried into the church by the deacon (now in white dalmatic). The candle is stuck in the middle of the choir and is censed and has the Exsultet (without the actions it mentions being carried out) sung to it. Four prophecies are then chanted to the candle in the middle of the choir whislt the ministers remain at the sedilia listening to them. The Litany (no longer duplicated) is sung as far as Omnes Sancti et Sanctae then interrupted and in the middle of choir before the candle and in the sight of the people a bucket of water is blessed as the font was before. Then in Latin (or where forms in the Rituale have been authorised in the vernacular) the people are invited to renew their baptismal promises. Then the Litany is resumed and Mass celebrated. At the Mass Judica and the preparatory prayers are omitted, Vespere autem sabbati is the communion verse, Spiritum nobis the postcommunion and the last Gospel is omitted.

Vigil Mark2 came out of the committee room onto the presses in 1952. Compline on Holy Saturday was omitted as were Mattins and Lauds of Easter where Vigil Mark2 took place. The collect Veniat had the word intende substituted for accende. At the collects following the prophecies the deacon, no longer the subdeacon, chanted Levate. The third prophecy (Isiah 4: 1-6) was shortened by losing its first verse. Sicut cervus returns to this version and is sung as the bucket of water is carried to the font after its blessing. In the invitation to renew baptismal promises the word celebrans replaces expectans (the Resurrection). Vernacular forms are permitted by the local bishop for the renewal of baptismal promises. At the Mass the communion verse goes and is replaced by Alleluia and Ps. 116 now treated as a psalm of Lauds (!). Et valde mane is the antiphon on the Benedictus with Spiritum nobis as the collect. Mark2 suppressed the Vigil of Pentecost ceremonies where it had been celebrated. [As the Vigil of Pentecost would remind of the old rite too much.]

Vigil Mark3 from 1956 got shot of the folded chasubles and Ps. 150 was substituted for Ps.116. The text for Ps. 150 and the Benedictus are that featured in the 1945 'Bea' translation of the Psalterium (in the Vatican typical edition at least).

"There is that ludicrous business of changing into violet vestments in the middle of Good Friday and giving everyone Communion with the celebrant not even going to collect the Blessed Sacrament. One is supposed to wait until 3.00pm when Our Lord's Passion was already over. Holy Saturday is a miserable business, with no triple-branched candle, the Exsultet sung straight through without doing the things mentioned at various points in the text, the prophecies reduced to four, that horrible renewal of baptismal promises and so on. The whole thing gets turned into a sort of Midnight Mass but there is not the slightest reason for thinking the Resurrection happened at midnight, as the third day started at sunset on Saturday."

Rev. Dr. T.C.G. Glover, JCD - letter to the blogger 15th May 1990

Friday 10 April 2009

Tenebrae for Holy Saturday

Tenebrae for Holy Saturday takes place in the late afternoon or evening of Good Friday.

The service is structurally the same as that sung for Maundy Thursday and Good Friday and the differences will be noted. The choir altar is as it was after Vespers this morning with six candlesticks and altar Cross now unveiled. Choir reverence are omitted until after None tomorrow.

At Mattins the first antiphon is In pace. The psalms are strictly proper. After the last verse of each psalm a candle is exstinguished on the hearse. The Lamentations of Jeremy form the first nocturn lessons with the Prayer of Jeremy as third lesson. The second nocturn lessons are again from St. Augustine on the psalms and in the third nocturn again from St. Paul to the Hebrews. The theme of the service is Christ in the Tomb. At Lauds the antiphon on the Benedictus is Mulieres, sung to the same tone as the previous nights and doubled. Exactly the same ceremonies take place as last night. When the Christus factus est is sung Propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum, dedit illi nomen, quod est super omne nomen is added.

Feria VI in Parasceve - Good Friday

On Good Friday morning the altar is bare except for six candlesticks bearing candles of unbleached wax and the altar Cross veiled in black (preferably) or violet.

The Little Hours are chanted exactly as yesterday the only difference being that Mortem autem crucis is added to Christus factus es and the altar candles are not lit.

After None the Hebdomadarius and ministers enter choir for the 'Mass of the Pre-Sanctified'. The celebrant wears black stole, maniple and chasuble; the deacon black stole, maniple and folded chasuble; and, the subdeacon black maniple and folded chasuble. The ministers prostrate before the altar (for the time of a Miserere according to the better authors). During this the acolytes spread a single cloth on the altar mensa folded longitudinally back on itself so that at first it does not cover the front part of the mensa. The missal is placed at the Epistle corner. The celebrant and ministers rise and the celebrant kisses the altar and goes to the Epistle corner where he reads a prophecy from Osee whilst this is chanted by a lector in choir. This is followed by a Tract. After the Tract the celebrant, at the altar, chants Oremus, the deacon Flectamus genua and the subdeacon Levate. The celebrant then sings the collect Deus, a quo et Judas. Then, just as at High Mass, the subdeacon sings an 'Epistle' whilst the celebrant reads it at the altar. A second Tract is then sung. This is followed by the Passion of St. John. This is sung as on Palm Sunday and Tuesday and Wednesday by three Deacons of the Passion. Today they were black stoles and use uncovered lecterns.

[Note. The above photograph is of the beginning of the Passion according to St. John from the Chronista part from a set of Passion Books in this blogger's collection printed in Rome, 1860. The rather beautiful chant is ascribed to Palestrina and Guidetti. It is more difficult to sing than the more familiar 'modern' form but well worth the effort.]

Towards the end of the Passion the deacon takes off his chasuble and folds it over his shoulder or dons the 'broad stole'. The ceremonies for the Gospel take place as at High Mass except today no blessing is asked, there is no incense and the acolytes do not carry lights. One of the better restorations of the early twentieth century was an ancient tone for the Gospels of the Passions.

This rather sublime music and haunting music was to be suppressed in the 'restoration' of 1956. After the Gospel the ministers go to the Epistle corner and there the Solemn Prayers are sung, the ministers behind the celebrant as at a normal High Mass. After Oremus by the celebrant the deacon chants Flectamus genua and the subdeacon Levate. After the series of prayers the ministers return to the sedilia where the celebrant and subdeacon remove their chausbles. Meanwhile a violet carpet is laid from the altar steps and a cushion edged with gold and covered by a veil is laid to receive the Cross.

The celebrant and subdeacon stand before the Epislte side of the altar, in plano, facing the people. The deacon takes the altar Cross and brings it to the celebrant. The celebrant unveils the upper portion of the Cross and sings Ecce lignum crucis. The choir responds Venite adoremus and kneels. This is repeated twice until the whole Cross is unveiled and the celebrant is on the footpace at the centre of the altar.

He then carries the Cross to the cushion, then genuflects and returns to the sedilia where he is met by the ministers. The minsisters then take off their maniples and shoes. Meanwhile all other crosses are unveiled. Veneration of the Cross follows with the celebrant making three prostrations before the Cross as he approaches it, then kissing the Cross, genuflecting and returning to his place. At the sedilia the celebrant resumes his shoes, maniple and chasuble. The deacon and subdeacon then make their Veneration followed by the choir and people. After the unveiling of the Cross it is genuflected to by all in actu functionis and Choir reverences cease until None tomorrow. At the sedilia the ministers read the 'Reproaches' with the celebrant whilst they are sung by the choir. Of note is the use of the Greek Trisagion interolated with Popule meus. The Crucem tuam and then Crux fidelis interpolated with Pange, lingua, gloriosi Lauream. Towards the end of the Veneration acolytes light the altar candles and the candles they will carry. At the end of the Veneration the celebrant gives the Cross to the kneeling deacon who then returns it to the altar.

A procession is then formed and goes to the altar of repose where two thuribles have been prepared. The deacon opens the capsula and incense is put on the thuribles but not blessed. The reserved Sacrament is censed kneeling. The celebrant then puts on the humeral veil and is given the Sacrament by the deacon. The party processes back to the choir altar and the superb Vexilla regis is sung. There is something very striking about the white humeral veil over the black chasuble as can be seen (just about) below:

At the choir altar the deacon takes the chalice from the celebrant and places it on the altar and unties the ribbon. More incense is put on and the Sacrament censed again the ministers kneel. The ministers go up to the altar the Host is slipped onto the paten. Acolytes bring up cruets although water is not blessed and the chalice made as at High Mass. The 'gifts' are then censed as at High Mass and the celebrant washes his hands as at Mass coram Sanctissimo. The celebrant then comes to the centre and says the prayer In spiritu humilitatis then turning to the Gospel side to say Orate, fratres turning back without making a circle. No answer is made.

The celebrant then sings the Pater noster in the ferial tone followed by Libera nos. The celebrant then slips the paten under the Host. The Host is then elevated in his right hand whilst the left holds the paten. The Host is then held over the chalice and broken as at Mass. the fraction being placed in the cup. There is neither Pax nor Agnus Dei. The celebrant says Perceptio Corporis tuis, Panem caelestem, Domine non sum dignus and Corpus Domini before consuming the Host and contents of the Chalice. The ablutions follow and the celebrant says Quod ore the ministers reverence the altar and return, in silence, to the sacristy.

Vespers are now sung without chant. The antiphons are the same as yesterday for the psalms but the antiphon on the Magnificat is Cum accepisset acetum. After the repitition of the antiphon Christus factus est, Pater, Miserere and Respice. After Vespers the candles are exstinguished.

In many other Latin rites in the past, and indeed in some places in the world such as Poland to this day, the Cross was buried in the 'Easter Sepulchre' until it raising at Paschal Mattins. The question of these rites of 'depositio' and corresponding 'elevatio' is complex and will be discussed at at later date. Post Dr. Glover's retirement an 'Easter Sepulchre' was created at Durham:

[The Cross is resting on a veil and cushion as prescribed in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum Lib. II, Cap. XXV, 3 & 24 for the Veneration. After Vespers the Cross has been carried in procession and ritually 'entombed' in the Sepulchre following local custom, albeit with a hiatus in praxis of a few centuries! Following the older practice only the Cross is entombed the single reserved Host was consumed by the celebrant that morning. Durham, 1997]

The 'liturgical books of 1962' are ghastly today. The altar has nothing at all on it, no candlesticks or Cross. The same changes to the Office as posted yesterday. For the 'Solemn Afternoon Liturgical Action' the minister enter in albs and stoles only, no maniple or chasubles or dalmatics. The Gospel ceremony is lost. Much of the service takes place at the sedilia (a forerunner of the cult of the 'chair'). For the Solemn Collects the celebrant puts on a black cope and stands at the middle of the altar assisted by minister in dalmatic and tunicle.

For the Veneration the Cross is brought from the sacristy. There are no longer prostrations or the 'Creeping to the Cross' but three simple genuflections from the ministers, one by everyone else. The minister listen to the reproaches. For the communion service the minsiters put on violet chausble, dalmatic and tunicle. The deacon brings the reserved sacrament back, there is no Vexilla regis but three new antiphons. The entire congregation recites, not sings, the Pater noster. The celebrant says Perceptio, Domine non sum dignus and Corpus Domini and communcates himself. Meanwhile the deacon sings the Confiteor (the only day allowed by the 1962 books but how the 62ists break that rule...) and then after the absolution the celebrant communicates everyone else. Three prayers are then sung from the middle of the altar. Vespers are omitted.

The section on the 'restoration' of the Good Friday liturgy by Signor Gregory Di Pippo may be found here and here.

Thursday 9 April 2009

Tenebrae for Good Friday

Tenebrae for Good Friday takes place in the late afternoon or evening of Maundy Thursday. The service is structurally the same as that sung for Maundy Thursday and the differences will be noted.

The choir altar is as it was after stripping with six candlesticks and altar Cross veiled now in black (preferably) or violet. [Note. The altar stone used in the Union Debating Chamber was laid on a table supported by trusses and chairs. The plain black covering is not an antependium of any sort but merely to disguise the supporting structure.]

At Mattins the first antiphon is Astiterunt reges. The psalms are strictly proper. After the last verse of each psalm a candle is exstinguished on the hearse. The Lamentations of Jeremy form the first nocturn lessons. The second nocturn lessons are again from St. Augustine on the psalms and in the third nocturn from St. Paul to the Hebrews.

At Lauds the antiphon on the Benedictus is Posuerunt, sung to the same tone as last night and doubled. Exactly the same ceremonies take place as last night. When the Christus factus est is sung Mortem autem crucis is added.

After Tenebrae in Cathedral and larger churches the Ceremonial Washing of the Altars took place. The bare mensae were washed with a mixture of water and wine and the surface scoured with brushes and dried with towels whilst Diviserunt and psalm 21 were monotoned. After this service Christus factus est etc is added.

Feria Quinta in Coena Domini - Maundy Thursday

On Maundy Thursday morning the Hours of Prime, Terce, Sext and None are chanted in aggregation. The choir altar is vested as it was on yesterday evening for Tenebrae with violet antependium, lighted candles of unbleached wax and a violet veil on the Cross. The Little Hours take on a special and much simplified form during the Triduum in the Roman rite.

[Note: Most of the photographs posted of Dr. Thomas Glover's Triduum were taken in 1995 of the ceremonies in the Union Debating Chamber of the University of Durham. The above is from two years earlier of Dr. Glover's chapel at Sacriston, Durham.]

The choir enters the sanctuary, seniores ante inferiores, and kneels for Aperi, Domini then rises whilst a Pater noster, Ave Maria and Credo are said on the lips. The usual start of the Hours is omitted, as are antiphons, and Prime begins with the first verse of Psalm 53, Deus, in nomine tuo salvum me fac being intoned by the duty side cantor. The choir Signs itself at the opening words. The psalms are monotoned the verses taken by alternate sides of choir. Gloria Patri is not sung or said during the Triduum. After the last verse of Ps. 53 the choir continues, without break or intonation, with the first stanza of Ps. 118, Beati immaculati, and then with the second stanza Retribue. At the last verse a fall of a third is made on the last syllable.

The choir kneels and Christus factus est recited as far as ad mortem. A Pater noster is then said by all and the Miserere monotoned in a subdued voice. Other than polyphonic settings that may be sung at Tenebrae the Miserere never sung at the other Hours of the Triduum but always chanted as above. During the last verse of the Miserere again a fall of a third is made on the last syllable.

The Hebdomadarius then montones the collect Respice, falling a third at the last syllable of tormentum and then the conclusion is said in silence.
The choir rises and says a Pater noster and Ave Maria on their lips. Terce then proceeds as Prime had done the choir Signing at Legem pone mihi. A fall of a third is made at the end of the third stanza of Ps. 118 and everything repeated as at Prime: Christus factus est, Pater noster, Miserere and collect Respice. The same is adopted for Sext and None.

After None the choir rises and the Hebdomadarius and ministers of Mass go to the sacristy to vest. Meanwhile the choir altar is prepared for Mass. The candles are changed for ones of bleached wax, a white antependium is laid over the violet one and a white veil placed over the altar Cross.

Mass is celebrated in white vestments. Today two Hosts are consecrated and thus placed on the paten before Mass. The organ may be played to the end of the Gloria in excelsis. The psalm Judica me is not said as the Mass is de Tempore. Gloria Patri is not sung at the introit, Nos autem, or at any of the other chants. The Gloria in excelsis is sung and bells may be rung (see Practical Tip below). There is one collect. The Credo is sung. The preface is of the Cross, the Communicantes, Hanc igitur and Qui pridie are all proper in the Canon. The Agnus Dei is sung as usual but the Pax is not given.

When the celebrant has communicated he takes the second Host and places it in a second chalice. The deacon then covers this chalice with a pall then an upside down paten over which is placed a white silk veil which is then secured with a ribbon tied around the stem of the chalice. (If the celebrant is without a deacon the chalice is veiled but the ribbon not tied at this point as tying a ribbon with ones thumb and digit held together is not practical. In this case the tying takes place after the ablutions). Mass now proceeds following the rules coram Sanctissimo - basically no one turns their back to the Sacrament. Holy Communion is distibuted as normal following the Confiteor etc.

After the distribution of Communion Mass continues, Ite, missa est is the dismissal sung by the deacon and the blessing and last Gospel follow their normal course - with the coram Santissimo changes in ceremonial. The ministers reverence the altar at the end of Mass and go to the sedilia where they remove their maniples and the celebrant dons a white cope. The minister return to the altar, prostrate and kneel on the lowest step. Incense is put on two thuribles but not blessed. The reserved Sacrament is censed. The celebrant is then given a white humeral veil and the deacon presents him with the veiled chalice. A procession is made to the altar of repose whilst Pange, lingua, gloriosi Corporis is sung. At the altar of repose a further censing takes place and the veiled chalice is placed inside the capsula.

After due reverence to the Sacrament the ministers of the Mass return to the sacristy to unvest. However, the rest of the choir return to the choir altar. During the procession and ceremonies at the altar of repose the white veil is removed from the altar Cross, the white frontal removed and the candles exchanged for ones of lighted unbleached wax. Vespers are begun at once and are again chanted to a monotone or sung where this is the custom. Vespers does have antiphons for today and tomorrow and after a Pater noster and Ave Maria the service starts with the first antiphon, Calicem salutaris, is intoned, the choir Signing itself. The antiphon is doubled and the psalm follows. If Vespers are not sung a drop of a third is made at the end of the last verse of each psalm before the repitition of the antiphon. During the course of the five psalms and antiphons.

After the last antiphon has been repeated Christus factus est etc is chanted to a monotone as at the Little Hours. During the Miserere a second priest in white stole removes the Sacrament from the tabernacle (if present) and takes it to the place - not the altar of repose - where it will be reserved until Holy Saturday.

[Note: In Cathedral churches the Holy Oils are consecrated during the Mass. Time constraints preclude me writing about this now. However, when there was evidence of several Masses on Maundy Thursday in Rome (vide: Gelasian Sacramentary) the Host was reserved at the Mass the pope confected the Chrism.]

After Vespers the ministers of Mass return vested in violet stoles. The celebrant of the Mass monotones the antiphon Diviserunt sibi which the choir continues followed by Psalm 21. The choir altar (and then other altars if present) is then stripped of cloths, frontal etc leaving only the veiled Cross and candlesticks. The candles and sanctuary lamp are exstinguished. Lustral water is removed from the entrances to the church.

In the afternoon the Mandatum ceremony takes place. [Dr. Glover never celebrated this so there are no photographs.] A procession to a suitable place is made with the celebrant vested in violet stole and cope assisted by a deacon in white stole, maniple and dalmatic and subdeacon in white tunicle and maniple. The ministers make the usual reverences to the altar and the deacon lays the Evangeliarium on the mensa. All follows exactly as for the Gospel at High Mass and the same Gospel that was sung this morning is again proclaimed.

After the Gospel the celebrant removes the violet cope and puts on an apron. The minsiters remove their maniples. Meanwhile thirteen men seated on benches remove their shoes and socks. Acolytes take a basin, ewer, towels and a plate bearing coins to the first man. The celebrant kneels before the man and water is poured over his right foot, held by the subdeacon. The deacon passes a towel to the celebrant (with the usual oscula) and the celebrant dries the man's foot and kisses it. He then gives the man a coin who takes it and kisses the celebrant's hand. This process is repeated for all thirteen men.

During this the choir sings the antiphon Mandatum novum (the text giving Maundy Thursday its English name). Eight other antiphons are provided including the famous Ubi caritas. After the last man's foot is washed the celebrant and ministers return to the credence where the celebrant washes his hands and resumes the violet cope. They go to the Epistle corner and there the celebrant intones Pater noster (continued in silence), some versicles and the collect Adesto. All then return to the sacristy.

At the usual time Compline is sung. Again its form is absolute simplicity beginning with the Confiteor and the usual psalms, Nunc dimittis and then Christus factus est, Miserere and Respice as before.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' 'Tenebrae' so-called takes place in the morning outside Cathedral churches. The Miserere is omitted from the end of all the Hours. Vespers are omitted. An evening Mass takes place where the tabernacle is empty to begin. The Creed is omitted. Only one Host is consecrated and a ciborium for Communion today and tomorrow. After the Gospel the Mandatum may take place and the feet of twelve men are washed, the celebrant versus populum for the collect. In the Mass the third petition of Agnus Dei is miserere nobis and the prayer Domine, Jesu Christi omitted. The Confiteor and absolution before Communion is suppressed for the first time, Benedicamus Domino replaces Ite, missa est, there is no blessing and the last Gospel omitted. Watching at the altar of repose cease at midnight. Vespers are omitted. At Compline the collect Respice is replaced by the usual Visita.

Again interested readers are referred to Signor Gregory DiPippo's excellent series of articles, the relevant section for Maundy Thursday being here.

Practical Tips:
1) Older Office books often had a fly sheet with Christus factus est, Miserere etc that could be moved through the book as required and save flicking through pages for those who do not know the texts from memory causing an unnecessary and annoying hiatus as members of the choir find the correct page. If unavailable in original form such sheets could easily be reproduced.

2) When setting up the sanctuary for the Triduum it will be easier to veil the altar Cross first in a black veil then cover this with a violet one. Lastly ensure the white veil is of the right proportions to cover the violet one and can easily be added and removed.

3) My experience is that the ringing of bells at the Gloria today and on Holy Saturday is most effective if a moderate bell is rung rhythmically through all the Gloria rather than a cacophony of a clash of different bells ringing in competition with each other.

Wednesday 8 April 2009

Spy Wednesday - Tenebrae

Maundy Thursday is a double of the first class.

During the late afternoon (following the practice in Rome),or evening, the service of Tenebrae is sung. Tenebrae is simply Mattins and Lauds, as usual anticipated, of the following liturgical day but the Office of the Triduum shows signs of antiquity and has developed a ceremonial extinguishing of candles that mimetically represent the desertion of the LORD by his disciples and the days of darkness - hence the name.

On Spy Wednesday evening the altar is vested in violet antependia and the Blessed Sacrament removed if It is present on the choir altar. The altar cross is veiled in violet and the candlesticks, the plainest set used on Good Friday, bearing candles of unbleached wax.

In Rome Tenebrae in the Papal Chapel was celebrated very early so the rays of the setting sun would pass through a window of the Sistine Chapel. The Caeremoniale Episcoporum mentions Tenebrae starting progressively later each day of the Triduum. In practice the service 'works best' if it ends in near darkness.

The photograph (of a photograph) above was taken just before the singing of Tenebrae on Spy Wednesday evening in the Union Debating Chamber of the University of Durham in 1995. It part of a series of photographs of the Triduum celebrated by a good friend of this blogger the Rev. Dr. T.C.G. Glover, JCD. Dr. Glover celebrated the full Office of the Triduum including all the Horae Minorae from the mid-1980s until 1995 on his retirement. More photographs will be posted over the Triduum.

In the sanctuary in about the place where the Epistle is sung is placed the Tenebrae hearse. The hearse, for the Roman rite, bears fifteen candles of unbleached wax. Six candles of unbleached wax are lit on the altar. The choir enters, seniores ante inferiores, take their places and kneels to say Aperi, Domine. When the choir rises the sign of the Cross is made as the cantors intone the first antiphon of Mattins, Zelus domus tuae is intoned (in full) and the first psalm Salvum me fac, Deus intoned. At the end of the psalm (there is no Gloria Patri during the Triduum) the lowest candle on the Gospel side of the hearse is extinguished. Before the 1911-13 reform the chant books had a special cadence at the end of each psalm, a drop of a fourth, which presumably was an audible indication for the acolyte to extinguish a candle. After the first three psalms there is a versicle and response and a silent Pater noster. During the Triduum there are no absolutions and blessings at Mattins.

The follows the Lamentations of Jeremy the Prophet as first nocturn lessons. These are from the OT book and have verses based on a Hebrew acrostic. The first verse thus begins with 'Aleph'. The verses have several special tones in plainsong and have been set to polyphony by various composers. A responsory follows the first lessons as usual at Mattins. After the third responsory the second nocturn begins and has lessons from St. Augustine on the psalms. The third nocturn has lessons from St. Paul to the Corinthians on the foundation of the Holy Eucharist. At the end of Mattins the Tenebrae Hearse has five candles exstinguished on the Gospel side and four on the Epistle side with six remaining lit candles.

Lauds follow immediately. After each psalm of Lauds a further candle is extinguished so that after the last psalm only the candle on the summit of the hearse is still alight. After the last antiphon is repeated a versicle and response follow. Then the antiphon on the Benedictus is intoned, for Maundy Thursday this is Traditor autem dedit eis signum, dicens: Quem osculatus fuero, ispe est, tenete eum. The concept of the betrayal of Judas is key to the day. The plainsong for the Benedictus is a haunting tone 1g. During the last six verses each of the altar candles is exstinguished. All other lamps in the church are now also extinguished. During the repetition of the antiphon the MC takes the candle from the hearse and places it on the mensa at the Epistle corner of the altar. All kneel and the choir now sings Christus factus est pro nobis obediens usque ad mortem. During this antiphon the MC hides the lit candle behind the altar. A Pater noster is now said in a low voice by all and then psalm 50 the Miserere is chanted in a subdued voice. This has been adapted by many composers into polyphonic masterpieces, perhaps the most famous being by Allegri. The Miserere was part of the ferial preces of Vespers until 1911-13. After the Miserere the collect Respice is chanted by the Hebdomadarius. Then a strepitus or noise is made traditionally by banging books against the stalls. Practical Tip: DO NOT bang decent books against the stalls, they are rare enough already - bash the Hell out of a '62 book instead!

After the strepitus the MC brings the candle and returns this symbol of the light of Christ to the top of the hearse. It either remains there or is taken by the MC ahead the procession as the choir processes out after Sacrosanctae.

Please read the section on Tenebrae from the series by Signor Gregory DiPippo here.

In the 'restored' rite found in the 'liturgical books of 1962' the symbolism of the service is shattered at it takes place in broad daylight. A.J. MacGregor's 'Fire and Light in the Western Triduum' conclusively demonstrates that Tenebrae never took place in broad daylight. The Miserere is omitted from all the Offices, the cermony with the candle and the strepitus are gone.

Tuesday 7 April 2009

The Sacred Triduum

I have prepared several posts covering the Sacred Triduum. I have tried to illustrate these posts with photographs taken over several years at the Triduum celebrated by the Rev. Dr. T.C.G. Glover JCD, a former priest of the Roman Oratory, who celebrated the Sacred Triduum according to the Old Roman rite from the mid-1980s until his retirement in 1995. Dr. Glover served several Mass centres in the North of England and celebrated the Triduum in the Union Debating Chamber of the University of Durham. The first post will (hopefully!) be automatically posted tomorrow afternoon for Tenebrae of Maundy Thursday. What was, I believe, unique about the 'Glover Triduum' is that all the Office functions were celebrated for the Triduum along with the major services with the exception of the Mandatum.

There is so much one could blog about the Triduum but I have had to keep to a bare minimum as I shall be away from tomorrow until Easter Sunday. There are no prizes for guessing what I will be doing! Any comments will be posted on Sunday as I shall not have Internet access from tomorrow afternoon.

One of the most important aspects of liturgy, IMHO, is emplotment and narrativity. I see the arrangement of the Triduum as a good example and this was driven home to me by the 'Glover praxis'. The exceptional, seasonal, functions are emploted into the cursus of the Liturgical day.

May all readers have a blessed Triduum and a holy, and joyous, Pascha.

Monday 6 April 2009

Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday in Holy Week

Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday in Holy Week are privileged ferias. No feast may take precedence over them. A feast is either commemorated or transferred depending on its rank.

On Monday at the Hours the antiphons are proper. Mattins has one nocturn. At the second scheme of Lauds the ferial preces are sung, the choir kneeling. The ferial preces are also sung at the Hours again, the choir kneeling. At Mass the second collect is Ecclesiae, for the Church, the preface is of the Cross, there is an Oratio super populum and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino. Vespers are ferial with preces feriales sung kneeling and at Compline the preces are also sung kneeling.

On Tuesday all is similar to Monday. The notable exception is that as on Palm Sunday a Passion is sung at Mass. On Tuesday this is the Passion according to St. Mark. The same ceremonies as mentioned on Palm Sunday apply.

On Wednesday again a similar pattern is followed. At Prime in the Martyrology the first announcement is that of Maundy Thursday. After today the Martyrology is not read until Holy Pascha. At Mass there are two lessons from Isiah before the Passion and Gospel. The Passion according to St. Luke is sung.

On the evening of Spy Wednesday, Wednesday in Holy Week, Mattins and Lauds is sung in a special form known as Tenebrae.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' following the 'Restored' order of Holy Week dalmatic and tunicle are worn by the deacon and subdeacon rather than folded chasubles. No commemorations are allowed and there is no second collect in the Masses. Any text read by a lector, subdeacon or deacon is not read by the celebrant (extended throughout the year in the 1962 books). OHSI of 1955 orders the Orate fratres to be said in an audible voice and all to respond. Ferial preces are sung only on Wednesdays at Lauds and Vespers only. The Passions are shortened somewhat and the Gospel ceremonies omitted.

The second relevant installment by Signor Gregory Di Pippo on the 'restoration' may be found here.

Sunday 5 April 2009

Dominica in Palmis - Palm Sunday

Palm Sunday is a privileged semi-double Sunday of the first class and the sixth, and last, Sunday of Lent. No feast can take its place. On a personal note it is the favourite day of this blogger's Liturgical Year and every year he weeps bitter and copious tears at its devastation by Pius XII in 1956 and in the 'liturgical books of 1962'.

The Office begins, as usual in Lent, with Vespers yesterday morning. First Vespers were sung with a commemoration of the preceding Office of St. Isidore and St. Vincent Ferrer. At Compline the Dominical preces were omitted because of the ocurring double feasts at Vespers.

At Mattins there are three nocturns. In the first nocturn the book of Jeremiah the Prophet is read. In the second nocturn the lessons are a sermon of St. Leo the Great and in the third a homily of St. Ambrose. There is no Te Deum but a ninth responsory in its place. At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, Canticle Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is Lustra sex. A commemoration of St. Vincent Ferrer is made.

The photograph below is from a celebration of Palm Sunday Mattins and Lauds, on the Saturdya evening, at a private chapel in Central London from 1997. The large 'Rood Cross' should, of course, have been veiled but unfortunately this was not practically possible.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the anitphon is Pueri Hebraeorum (that will be heard later at the distribution of Palms) psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two stanzas of 118. The Dominical preces are not sung due to the occuring double feast and the short lesson is Faciem meam. At Terce the antiphon is Pueri Hebraeorum vestimenta which again will be heard shortly afterwards at the distribution of Palms.

After Terce, as usual the Asperges ceremony takes place before Mass. The deacon and subdeacon wear violet folded chasubles. After the Asperges the celebrant and ministers proceed to the Epistle corner and begin the elaborate blessing of Palms. The rubrics give a direction that the Palms to be blessed are either to the Epistle side or be placed in the centre. At the London celebration pictured below the complete liturgy was sung, including all the Little Hours, Vespers and Compline. The blessing starts with an 'introit' Hosanna Filio David followed by a collect Deus, quim diligere followed by an Epistle, 'gradual' and Gospel with the associated ceremonies from High Mass.

Following the Gospel a further collect Auge fidem followed by a preface, Sanctus and four further collects Deus, qui dispersa, Deus, qui miro, Deus, qui per olivae and Benedic quaesumus. The celebrant then puts on incense and blesses it. The Palms are then aspersed with lustral water and then censed. Another collect, Deus, qui Filium is then sung. The antiphons Pueri Hebraeorum and Pueri Hebraeorum vestimenta are then sung whilst the Palms are distributed. After the distribution the collect Omnipotens sempiterne is sung. A Procession is then formed and the following antiphons sung Cum appropinquaret, Cum audisset, Ante sex dies, Occurrunt turbae, Cum angelis et pueris and Turba multa. Following the Procession some cantors re-enter the church and close the door. The beautiful hymn of Theodolph Gloria, laus, et honor is sung. At the end of the hymn the subdeacon strikes the church door with the foot of the processional Cross and the party enters to the singing of Ingrediente Domino.

The photograph above and the one immediately below and the one showing the Deacons of the Passion below are taken from the excellent series by Mark Coleman from St. Clement's Church in Philadelphia, USA. (It is surely ironic that an Anglican Church is taking such exceptional care to celebrate the glorious patrimony of the Roman rite whilst it is virtually abandoned by the Roman Church). Note the Palm is kissed then the celebrant's hand.

The photograph above is taken from 'Cardinal Bourne - A Life in Pictures', a memorial tribute to Cardinal Bourne, Archbishop of Westminster, and is from Palm Sunday 1919. Note the elaborate Palm the Cardinal is holding and the folded chasubles worn by the Assistant Deacons. The photograph is at the stage when Gloria laus is being sung before the re-entry into the Cathedral.

Mass then follows the usual form. No commemoration is made of an occuring Office on Palm Sunday. Psalm 21 is sung in its entirety as a Tract. The major difference from any other Sunday is singing of the Passion according to St. Matthew by three additional deacons of the Passion. After the Passion the Gospel is sung by the deacon of the Mass to a most haunting tone. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Cross and the dismissal Benedicamus Domino.

Sext and None again have proper antiphons. At Vespers a commemoration is made of St. Vincent.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' devestation might be a pertinent word to describewhat has happened to Palm Sunday. Mattins has its usual truncation to three lessons. No commemoration is made of St. Vincent. Prime has psalms 53 and the first two stanzas of psalm 118.

The Asperges is omitted. Why one might ask? The ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, along with the celebrant's chasuble of red colour. (It would be too distracting to argue the point but when red was worn in Passiontide in Medieval times the colour was a distinctly different shade from the red of martyrs and a dull 'ox blood' red.) The blessing of Palms takes place at a table facing the people. Only one of the former collects, Benedic quaesumus, is used and then the palms are distributed (without the ceremonial kissing of the celebrant's hand) with the Pueri Hebraeorum antiphons interpolated into the 1945 version of psalms 23 and 46. The Gospel follows, the ceremonies of Mass are not followed. In the procession the first three antiphons of the Old Rite are omitted. The first is Occurunt turbae (with Hosanna in excelsis omitted), then Cum angelis and Turba multa. Then a new antiphon Coeperunt omnes followed by the Gloria laus. However, vernacular hymns in honour of Christ the King may be sung. Then Lauda, Jerusalem, Fulgentibus palmis, Ave, Rex noster and Ingrediente. There is no ceremonial re-entry (although Econe would pick this and incorporate it into their adaptation of 1962).

The sacred ministers then change from red to violet. No folded chasubles of course. The prayers at the foot of the altar are omitted entirely and the celebrant kisses the altar and censes it. The deacons of the Passion receive a blessing, rather than the deacon of the Mass, and sing a shortened version of the Passion. The former Gospel is omitted both textually and ceremonially. The dismissal is Ite, missa est and the last Gospel is omitted. There are no commemorations at Vespers.

There is an excellent article by Signor Gregory DiPippo on the changes here. Likewise an article by Fr. Anthony Cekada here although I would beg to differ with Fr. Cekada that the blessing of Palms is a 'dry Mass'. Whilst it certainly has the appearance of one in the post-Trent books my own view is that it is a non-Roman form of solemn blessing - however time precludes that discussion at the moment.

Friday 3 April 2009

Seven Sorrows of the BVM

Today is the feast of the Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The feast is of greater double rite.

The liturgical observance of the feast began yesterday morning with first Vespers which has proper antiphons and psalms. The famous Stabat Mater is the Office hymn. A commemoration was made of the Office of St. Francis de Paul and the Lenten feria. A Doxology proper to the feast is sung at all hymns of Iambic metre.

At Mattins the invitatory is proper and the hymn continues. The antiphons are proper. In the first nocturn the lessons are from Isiah. In the second nocturn they are taken from a sermon of St. Bernard and in the third from a homily of St. Ambrose. The ninth lesson is from the Lenten feria. At Lauds the antiphons are again proper and the psalms of Sunday sung.

At Prime the festal psalms are sung, the versicle in the short responsory is Qui passus es propter nostram salutem and the short lesson Generationem. Mass follows Terce the Gloria is sung, the second collect of the Lenten feria. The sequence Stabat Mater follows the tract. The Credo is sung and the last Gospel is of the feria. Private Masses may be of the Lenten feria with a commemoration of the BVM, Oratio super populum, Benedicamus Domino and the last Gospel for the feast of the Seven Sorrows.

Following Mass Sext, None and Vespers are sung. At Vespers there is a commemoration of the following Office of St. Isidore the Lenten feria.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the feast is reduced to a commemoration in the ferial Mass and Office. However a rubric in the Sanctorale directs that where local devotion to Our Lady of Sorrows exists two festal Masses are permitted.

Wednesday 1 April 2009

Westminster Cathedral Holy Week - post Revolution

Click image to enlarge

In contrast to 1939's 'glorious' praxis of the last post the above is taken from 'The Tablet' of April 14th, 1962. Rather oddly the full week's services were not included in the advertisement. Perhaps the Canons were too ashamed of what they were doing by then.

We can note that Palm Sunday has been re-branded 'Second Sunday of the Passion' for some peculiar reason. Interesting too is the didactic instruction at the evening Low Mass. Time does not permit to go into any detail of ritual theory but basically when a sacred mystery has to be broken down by such instruction to enable any understanding it clearly no longer fulfills its role.

My understanding is that the daily cursus of the Office was still taking place at Westminster in 1962 as the late Mgr. Francis Canon Bartlett, of happy memory, told me that it was Cardinal Heenan who stopped that venerable practice. We can presume Vespers would have been chanted in the afternoon (from Lent 1961) of Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday.

On Wednesday evening we come to a notable peculiarity. According to the Pius XII re-ordering of Holy Week the only occasion Tenebrae could be legally held in the evening was in Cathedral Churches where the Chrism Mass was to take place the next morning. According to the 'liturgical books of 1962' this becomes modified with the prohibition on the anticipation of Lauds so that only Mattins may be anticipated in the same, specific, circumstances. Of course a websearch of Holy Week services this year will show many 1962-ists having Tenebrae in the evening in non-Cathedral churches but there again honesty and integrity are not hallmarks one generally associates with 1962-ists and their revisionism of liturgical history. So at Westminster on Spy Wednesday 1962 Cardinal Godfrey would have presided at Mattins. The pontifical ceremonies of Holy Week were revised too so at Mattins instead of the Cardinal entering the choir with his cappa magna let down and covering his head with its hood when seated the 1957 Ritus Pontificalis OHSI now had the Cardinal carry his cappa folded over his arm and wear his biretta instead.

In comparison to such changes what happens next is absurd. As will be posted next week for the office of Tenebrae a triangular candelabrum bearning fifteen candles of unbleached wax, called the hearse, is set before the choir altar in the place where the subdeacon sings the Epistles. In the Roman rite after each of the nine psalms of mattins and five psalm-units of Lauds a candle is extiguished. So at the end of the first nocturn the lower two candles on the left (the Gospel side) of the hearse will have been extinguished and the lowest on the right hand side. This process continues so that after the last psalm of Lauds a single candle remains at the centre of the hearse representing the Lord desserted by his disciples. During the Benedictus the six altar candles are progressively extinguished, along with all the lamps. The single candle is then hidden whilst the Miserere is chanted - but a full description of that next week.

However, at Westminster in 1962 Mattins only would have been sung as indeed the notice states. Nine candles would be extinguished but no more. The choir and Cardinal depart and the other six candles are left on the hearse and the six altar candles - presumably burning all night for Lauds to be resumed in the morning!! No mention of Lauds is made in the Westminster programme for Maundy Thursday morning.

The now separate Chrism Mass takes place on Maundy Thursday morning with the omission of In principio. In the evening there is the new 'Mass of the Last Supper' celebrated by an auxillary coram Cardinali. The Mandatum is now generally celebrated after the Gospel of the Mass. In that Mass the Creed is omitted, Agnus Dei changed, Benedicamus Domino replaces Ite, missa est, the blessing and In principio are cut too. Note the Cathedral closing at midnight.

On Good Friday Mattins and Lauds are sung in the morning - Tenebrae is no longer an appropriate term, perhaps someone should have suggested something else. Extinguishing the altar candles is somewhat difficult due to a marked absence of candlesticks. The replacement for the Mass of the Pre-Sanctified takes place in the afternoon.

Presumably Holy Saturday was similar with Mattins and Lauds in the morning and the Easter Vigil in the evening.

Manum suam misit hostes ad omnia desiderabilia ejus: quia vidit Gentes ingressas sanctuarium suum, de quibus praeceperas ne intrarent in ecclesiam tuam.

Et egressus est a filia Sion omnis decor ejus: facti sunt principes ejus velut arietes non invenintes pascua: et abierunt absque fortitudine ante faciem subsequentis.