Sunday, 2 February 2020

Purification of the BVM - Candlemass

The Feast of the Purification of the BVM is a Double of the Second Class. The feast is generally known in English-speaking countries as Candlemass as before Mass candles for use throughout the year ahead are solemnly blessed. The liturgical colour of the day is white but violet is used for the blessing of candles and procession. The fourth Sunday after the Epiphany is commemorated in the Office and at Mass.

In the Byzantine East the feast is known as the Hypapante, the Meeting of the Lord, and was often so name in early Western liturgical books (e.g. several examples can be found in the comparison of Calendars given in 'Saints in English Calendars before 1100', Henry Bradshaw Society, Vol.CXVII). In the diverse Medieval uses an even more elaborate blessing than the form found in the Roman Missal outlined below can be seen with a preface of blessing, e.g. Sarum, which compares with the blessing of Palms and the Waters at Epiphany.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons used on the feast of the Circumcision were sung again, O admirabile commercium etc., doubled, with the psalms of feasts for the Blessed Virgin (Pss. 109, 112, 121, 126 & 147). The chapter was proper to the feast and the Office hymn Ave, maris stella. The antiphon on the Magnificat was proper to the feast Senex Puerum portabat etc. After the collect of the feast commemorations of the preceding feast of St. Ignatius of Antioch and of the fourth Sunday after Epiphany were sung. At Compline the tone of Te lucis was that for feast of the Virgin with the Doxology in honour of the Incarnation Jesu, tibi sit gloria etc.

At Mattins the invitatory is proper, Ecce venit as templum sanctum suum Dominator Dominus: Gaude et laetare, Sion occurrens Deo tuo and the Office hymn is Quem terra. The antiphons and psalms for each nocturn come from the Common of the Blessed Virgin as does the Office hymn Quem terra, pontus, sidera. In the first nocturn the lessons are from the Book of Exodus and from Leviticus. The responsories are proper to feast and particularly beautiful. In the second nocturn the lessons come from a sermon of St. Augustine and in the third nocturn the homily if from St. Ambrose. The ninth lesson is the homily for the fourth Sunday after the Epiphany from St. Jerome on St. Matthew's Gospel. The Te Deum is sung. At Lauds the antiphons are proper to the feast, Simeon justus etc., and are sung with the Dominical psalms. The antiphon on the Benedictus is again proper to the feast, Cum inducerent etc. After the collect of the feast a commemoration of the Sunday is sung.

At the Hours the hymns have the melody of the BVM and the Doxology Jesu tibi sit gloria etc. The antiphons from Lauds, Simeon justus etc., are sung with the festal psalms. At Prime the psalms are Pss. 53, 118i & 118ii, in the short responsory the versicle Qui natus es de Virgine is sung and the lectio brevis is proper to the feast, Et placebit.

After Terce the Asperges and blessing of candles takes place. The celebrant vests in a violet cope and the ministers wear violet folded chasubles. The altar is vested in white but a violet antependium placed over the festal one etc. The organ is silent (as is always the case when folded chasubles are used).

After the Asperges ceremony the celebrant and ministers go to the Epistle corner there the celebrant sings five prayers of blessing in the ferial tone. Incense is then blessed, lustral water sprinkled over the candles whilst the celebrant says Asperges me and then the candles are then incensed. At the centre of the altar the celebrant receives a candle from the senior canon present, kissing the candle before taking it. In no canon or senior cleric is present the celebrant kneels before the altar and takes his own candle. Candles are then distributed while the antiphon Lumen ad revelationem is sung interpolated into the canticle Nunc dimittis. Those receiving the candles kiss them, first, then the celebrant's hand. At the conclusion of the distribution the antiphon Exsurge, Domine is sung with a Doxology and the candles lighted. After the distribution the celebrant returns with the ministers to the Epistle corner and chants Oremus. As the feast falls on a Sunday, and not being in Septuagesima, the deacon does not sing Flectamus genua. The celebrant sings the collect Exaudi. The procession then takes place. The subdeacon of the Mass takes the processional cross. The procession goes around the church with lighted candles during the singing of three antiphons Adorna thalamum, Responsum accepit Simeon and Obtulerunt. These text are clearly ancient and found, almost verbatim, in the Menaion of the Byzantine rite.

After the Procession the ministers change from violet vestments to white and Mass is celebrated. The Gloria is sung. The second collect is of the Sunday. The Creed is sung and the preface is that of the Nativity, the feast being a 'satellite' of Christmas. Lighted candles are held by all during the chanting of the Gospel, including the celebrant, and from the beginning of the Canon until after the distribution of Communion. The last Gospel is of the Sunday.

At second Vespers the antiphons Simeon justus etc and chapter from Lauds are used again with the psalms of the Blessed Virgin, the antiphon on the Magnificat is proper. After the collect of the feast a commemoration is sung of the Sunday. From Compline the Marian antiphon changes from Alma, Redemptoris to Ave, Regina caelorum etc.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the feast although of II class gains a first Vespers when it falls on a Sunday. However, being classed as a feast of the LORD no commemoration of the Sunday was made at Vespers. Mattins and Lauds are the same as the Old Rite except there is no ninth lesson of the Sunday at Mattins and there is no commemoration of the Sunday at Lauds. At the Little Hours the Dominical antiphons and psalter are used although the versicle Qui natus is sung in the short responsory at Prime. The lectio brevis is of the season, not of the feast. The Doxology in honour of the BVM is omitted at all the hymns of the Little Hours which are sung to a different tone.

At the blessing of candles white vestments are used rather than violet. The five collects of blessing have the usual 'long conclusion' omitted and in its place the 'short conclusion' - e.g. Per eundem Dominum nostrum. Amen. The verse Exsurge, Domine is omitted, the command of Flectamus genua is always omitted even in Septuagesima and at Mass Judica me Deus etc is excised as on several other days in the 1962 missal. There is no commemoration of the Sunday at Mass and the last Gospel is In principio. At Vespers there is no commemoration of the Sunday.

Icon of the Hypapante from St. John's Parish of the Melkite Eparchy in Australia.


Paul said...

I find it very funny that the $$PX boasts of going 1962, and yet they adopt many pre-55 practices. One of which I found out today when they did the blessing of candles: they did the long doxologies, not the '62 change.

Anonymous said...

I attended the 1962 Missal today and personally noticed how much was omitted from the Fr.Lasance missal.
Last year was the first time I had to attend the 1962 Missal for
Candlemas,due to logistical reasons.
My how they destroyed the Roman Rite one bit at a time.
God bless

Rubricarius said...


Yes, they are very inconsistent. Bows to the Cross, Nobis quoque in the abolished 'mid-voice', bits of old Holy Week the list goes on...

Anonymous said...

Should the Friday lessons at Matins be of Saturday's incipit? With the anticipated Sunday on Saturday having the lessons as noted in the Ordo?

Rubricarius said...


Yes, II Thessalonians on Friday.