Sunday, 29 November 2020

First Sunday of Advent

The first Sunday of Advent is a semi-double Sunday of the first class and its liturgical colour, until Vespers, is violet. The liturgy of Advent is perhaps the most exquisite of the entire liturgical year with 'layers' of meaning for both the First and Second Comings of the LORD. There is a weave of expectant joy and penance to be found throughout the liturgical texts. The eschatalogical theme of last Sunday's Gospel continues with St. Luke's Gospel today and the Coming of the Divine Judge. Vespers on Saturday before Advent Sunday mark the beginning of the Pars Hiemalis or Winter volume of the Breviary.

The Vigil of St. Andrew the Apostle was anticipated yesterday.

During Advent bishops of the Roman rite exchange their violet choir cassocks for black ones (with train) which are worn with either a black mozzeta or black mattelletum with violet linings. Cardinals of the Court of Rome wear their 'winter' violet merino apparel (in contrast to their summer mourning dress of violet watered-silk) in place of their scarlet watered-silk.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons In illa die etc were sung, not doubled, with the psalms of Saturday. The Office hymn was Creator alme siderum.  After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration was made of St. Saturninus.  The Suffrage was omitted being Advent. From this Vespers, until the end of None on the Vigil of the Nativity of the LORD, Alma Redemptoris etc is sung. At Compline the Dominical preces were sung.

At Mattins the invitatory is Regem venturum and this is sung in both the Dominical and ferial Offices of Advent until the third Sunday. The Office hymn is Verbum supernum. In the first nocturn the antiphons Veniet ecce Rex etc are sung, not doubled, with the usual psalms for Sunday. In the first nocturn the lessons are the Incipit of the prophet Isaiah. In the second nocturn the antiphons Gaude et laetare etc are sung and the lessons are taken from the writing of St. Leo on the fast of the tenth month, the theme of which is preparing for the Coming. In the third nocturn the antiphons Gabriel Angelus etc are sung and the homily is from St. Gregory continuing the theme of Coming with his commentary on St. Luke's Gospel about the end times. A ninth responsory is sung and the Te Deum is omitted in the Office of Advent. At Lauds the antiphons proper to the first Sunday In illa die etc, are sung, not doubled, with the Dominical psalms. The Office hymn is En clara vox.  After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of St. Saturninus is sung.  The Suffrage is omitted, as noted, during Advent.

At Prime the first antiphon from Lauds, In illa die, is sung, not doubled, with the usual Dominical psalms (117, 118i, 118ii). In the short responsory the versicle Qui venturus es in mundum replaces Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris for all of Advent except when an occurring feast has a proper versicle. The Dominical preces are sung. At the other Hours the remaining antiphons of Lauds are sung in the usual order.

Mass is sung after Terce. During Advent for ferial and Dominical Masses in the Roman rite, with the exception of the third Sunday Gaudete, the deacon and sub-deacon do not wear the dalmatic and tunicle but violet folded chasubles, an ancient feature of the Roman liturgy. The Gloria in not sung, the second collect is of St. Saturninus, the third collect is  Deus, qui de beatae. The Creed is sung, the preface that of the Blessed Trinity and, as the Gloria was not sung, the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the altar, not turned towards the people.

At Vespers there is a colour change to red and first Vespers of the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle are sung. The antiphons Salve, crux pretiosa etc, proper to the feast are sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 and 116. The Office hymn is Exsultet orbis gaudiis. After the collect of the feast a commemoration of the Sunday is sung. At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' the Vigil of St. Andrew has been abolished.  Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn of three lessons. At Compline on Saturday and at Prime there are no Dominical preces. At Mass the there is the novelty for the the Roman rite of the deacon wearing the dalmatic and the sub-deacon the tunicle in a penitential Mass of the season. Folded chasubles, so ancient and so quintessentially Roman, have been cast aside. There is only one collect and the dismissal is Ite, missa est. Vespers are of the Sunday with no commemorations.

Art: Jerome Nadal


Peter said...

During Advent, when would one say the Saturday Masses of Our Lady that are prescribed in the missal for that season? When there is no feast or octave on a Saturday, the office is of the Advent feria (like on December 5 this year), but can the Mass be of Our Lady or is it necessarily the ferial Mass?

Rubricarius said...


On 'ordinary' Advent Saturdays although the Office of Advent outranks the Saturday Office of the BVM the Conventual Mass is the Advent Mass of the BVM and where there are several Masses the principal Mass in a non-Conventual church may be the Mass of the BVM.