Sunday, 26 March 2017

Fourth Sunday in Lent

The Fourth Sunday in Lent is known as Laetare Sunday after the opening words of the Introit at its Mass Laetare, Jerusalem - Rejoice Jerusalem - and is also known as 'mid-Lent' Sunday and is also 'Mothering Sunday' in many countries including the United Kingdom. It is a semi-double Sunday of the first class. The distinguishing feature of this Sunday, in relatively modern times, is the permitted, though not by any measure of obligation, use of rose-coloured vestments. Rose is perceived as a lighter shade of violet and the use of rose vestments developed from the older praxis of a golden rose being given to female monarchs by the pope on this day. Cardinals of the Court of Rome wore rose watered-silk choir dress too on this Sunday along with the corresponding Gaudete Sunday in Advent. For the rest of Lent Cardinals wore their 'winter violet' merino cassock, mantelletum and mozzeta (not the violet watered silk of their 'summer' violet). This practice disappeared during the 1920s. There is no obligation whatsoever to wear rose and the older praxis of violet vestments, with the deacon and subdeacon in dalmatic and tunicle respecitively, not folded chasubles, may be maintained.

Vespers yesterday morning were second Vespers of the feast of the Annunciation. The antiphons Missus est etc were sung, doubled, with Pss. 109, 112, 121, 126 & 147. The chapter was proper to the feast and the Office hymn was Ave Maris stella. The antiphon on the Magnificat and collect, were again, proper to the feast. After the collect of the feast a commemoration of the Sunday was sung. At Compline the Dominical psalms were sung. Te lucis, was sung with the Doxology in honour of the Incarnation, Jesu tibi sit gloria etc. The Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is, as on the previous Sundays of Lent, Non sit vobis and the Office hymn is Ex more. The antiphons given in the Psalter for Sundays are used. In the first nocturn the lessons are from Exodus and the story of Moses and the Burning Bush. In the second nocturn the lessons are from the writings of St. Basil the Great on fasting and in the third nocturn the lessons are a homily of St. Augustine on St. John's Gospel. At Lauds the antiphons, Tunc acceptabis etc., are proper to the Sunday and the second scheme of Psalms sung (50, 117, 62, the canticle Benedictus es, 148). The chapter is proper to the Sunday and hymn is O sol salutis. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrage of the Saints is.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons, Accepit ergo etc., are proper to the Sunday. At Prime the psalms are 92, 99 (displaced from Lauds) and the first two divisi of Ps. 118. The Dominical preces are sung and the short lesson is Quaerite Dominum.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is not sung. The second collect is A cunctis, the third collect Omnipotens. A Tract is sung after the Gradual, the Credo is sung, the preface is of Lent and the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino, sung by the deacon facing the celebrant and altar. As folded chasubles are not worn the organ may be played. As noted above violet vestments may be used in the absence of rose, or in preference to it, in which case the deacon and subdeacon wear the dalmatic and tunicle not folded chasubles.

Vespers are of the Sunday. Pss. 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113 are sung. The Office hymn is Audi benigne Conditor. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations are sung of the following feast of St. John Damascene. The Suffrage of the Saints is omitted as are the Dominical preces at Compline.

In the 'liturgical books of 1962' Vespers yesterday were sung at the same time as outside of Lent. At Compline the ordinary Doxology is sung with Te lucis. Mattins is cut down to a single nocturn of three lessons. At Lauds there are is no Suffrage. At Prime the psalms are 53 and the first two divisi of Ps. 118. The preces are omitted. At Mass there is only a single collect. The dismissal is Ite, missa est. At Vespers there are no commemorations.

Art: Jerome Nadal


Anonymous said...

Are the origins of the Divine Office from a few popes,era's,theologians,etc..?
Did the Divine Office span over a great time span incorporating traditions little by little or was created in a relatively short time span?
I don't expect a text book multi paragraph answer.(not being rude I promise)

Rubricarius said...

A good read would be Taft's 'Liturgy of the Hours in East and West'. Basically the Roman Office is an amalgam of monastic (mostly) and cathedral elements pruned in the early second millenium to suit the Curial day. Popes only really began to control it during the sixteenth century.

Peter said...

Do you happen to know when the customs of cardinals wearing rose watered silk for choir dress originated? This is only a guess, but it one imagines it cannot have been very ancient.

Anonymous said...

Thank you for respondimg God bless you

Rubricarius said...


Apparently a XV - XVI century distinction according to Berthod & Blanchard Tresors inconnus du Vatican, p. 114. So certainly longer that the wearing of rose vestments on those days.